International Science Index


Developing Well-Being Indicators and Measurement Methods as Illustrated by Projects Aimed at Preventing Obesity in Children


Consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents is essential for their normal growth, development and health, but a significant minority of the world's population consumes the right amount of these products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the preferences and frequency of consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents. It has been assumed that effectively implemented nutrition education programs should have an impact on increasing the frequency of vegetable consumption among the recipients. The study covered 514 students of five schools in the Opole Voivodeship aged 9 years to 22 years. The research tool was an author's questionnaire, which consisted of closed questions on the frequency of vegetable consumption and the use of 10 ways to treat them. Preferences and frequencies are shown in percentages, while correlations were estimated on the basis of Cramer`s V and gamma coefficients. In each of the examined age groups, the relationship between sex and vegetable consumption (the Cramer`s V coefficient value was 0.06 to 0.38) was determined and the various methods of culinary processing were used (V Craméra was 0.08 to 0.34). For both sexes, the relationship between age and frequency of vegetable consumption was shown (gamma values ranged from ~ 0.00 to 0.39) and different cooking methods (gamma values were 0.01 to 0.22). The most important determinant of nutritional choices is the taste and availability of products. The fact that they have a positive effect on their health is only in third position. As has been shown, obesity prevention programs can not only address nutrition education but also teach about new flavors and increase the availability of healthy foods. In addition, the frequency of vegetable consumption can be a good indicator reflecting the healthy behaviors of children and adolescents.

[1] Przybylska D. Kurowska M. Przybylski P. Otyłość i nadwaga w populacji rozwojowej. Hygeina Public Health 2012. 47(1): 28-35.
[2] Świderska-Kopacz J. Marcinkowski J. Jankowska K. Zachowania zdrowotne młodzieży gimnazjalnej i ich wybrane uwarunkowania. Cz. V. Aktywność fizyczna. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2008, 89(2): 246-250.
[3] Woynarowska B. Żywienie i polityka w zakresie zdrowego żywienia w szkołach promujących zdrowie w Polsce. Hygeia Public Health 2014; 49(3): 490-494.
[4] Wolnicka K. Program „Owoce i warzywa w szkole” skuteczną inwestycją w kształtowanie prawidłowych nawyków żywieniowych. Żyw Człow Metab 2015; 42(2): 58-63.
[5] Wolnicka K, Taraszewska A, Jaczewska-Schuetz J. Wpływ programu „Owocew szkole” na spożycie owoców i warzyw wśród dzieci w wieku szkolnym. Żyw Człow Metab 2013; 40(4): 235-245.
[6] Nanney MS, MacLehose R, Kubik MY, Davey CS, Coombes B, Nelson TF. Recommended school policies are associated with student sugary drink and fruit and vegetable intake. Prev Med 2014; 62: 179–181.
[7] Leines D, Gold A, Van Offelen S. Go Wild with Fruits & Veggies! Curriculum Encourages Children to Eat More Fruits and Vegetables. J Nutr Educ Behav 2014; 46(1): 82-84.
[8] Amin SA, Yon BA, Taylor JC, Johnson RK. Impact of the National School Lunch Program on Fruit and Vegetable Selection in Northeastern Elementary Schoolchildren, 2012–2013. Public Health Rep 2015; 130: 453-457.
[9] Cunningham-Sabo L, Lohse B. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders’ Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking. Child Obes 2013; 9(6): 549-556
[10] He M, Beynon CE, Gritke JL et al. Children’s Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada. J Nutr Educ Behav 2012; 44(6): 592-596.
[11] Presti G, Cau S, Oppo A, Moderato P. Increased Classroom Consumption of Home-Provided Fruits and Vegetables for Normal and Overweight Children: Results of the Food Dudes Program in Italy. J Nutr Educ Behav 2015; 47(4): 338-344.
[12], accessed on: 05/07/2017.
[13] Kocot E. Wskaźniki zdrowotne – definicje, funkcje, klasyfikacje. Polityka Zdrowotna 2009; 7 (1): 64-75.
[14] Matuszak K. Pozytywne mierniki zdrowia u uczniów z upośledzeniem umysłowym. Rozprawa doktorska 2014; 6-11.
[15] Gronowska-Senger A. Zarys oceny żywienia. Wyd. SGGW. Warszawa 2009.
[16] Nowacka N. Metody oceny sposobu żywienia i stanu odżywienia. Jurnal of NutriLife. 2012: 06. 2300- 8938.
[17] Vereecken C, Pedersen TP, Ojala K et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption trends among adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in 33 countries. Eur J Public Health 2015; 25(2): 16-19.
[18] Al Ani MF, Al Subhi LK, Bose S. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Brit J Nutr 2016; 115: 1092-1099.
[19] Al-Hazzaa HM, Abahussain NA, Al-Sobayel HI, Qahwaji DM, Musaiger AO. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region. Int J Behav Nutr Phy 2011; 8(140).
[20] Zhang CX, Chen YM, Chen WQ, Su YX, Wang CL, Wu JN. Food group intake among adolescents in Guangzhou city compared with the Chinese dietary guidelines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2012; 21(3): 450-456.
[21] Wolnicka K, Jaczewska-Schuetz J, Taraszewska A. Analiza czynników wpływających na spożycie warzyw i owoców przez dzieci w wieku szkolnym. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2014; 95(2): 389-393.
[22] Terry-McElrath YM, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD. Accessibility Over Availability: Associations Between the School Food Environment and Student Fruit and Green Vegetable Consumption. Child Obes 2014; 10(3): 241-250.
[23] Gosliner W. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools. J Sch Health 2014; 84: 559-568.
[24] Attorp A, Scott JE, Yew AC, Rhodes RE, Barr SI, Naylor PJ. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada. BMC Public Health 2014; 14(150).
[25] Wolnicka K, Taraszewska AM, Jaczewska-Schuetz J, Jarosz M. Factors within the family environment such as parents’ dietary habits and fruit and vegetable availability have the greatest influence on fruit and vegetable consumption by Polish children. Public Health Nutr 2015; 18(15): 2705–2711.
[26] Trofholz AC, Tate AD, Draxten ML, Neumark-Sztainer D, Berge JM. Home food environment factors associated with the presence of fruit and vegetables at dinner: A direct observational study. Appetite 2016; 96: 526-532.
[27] Cook LT, O’Reilly GA, DeRosa CJ, Rohrbach LA, Spruijt-Metz D. Association between home availability and vegetable consumption in youth: a review. Public Health Nutr 2014; 18(4): 640–648.
[28] Lehto E, Ray C, te Velde S et al. Mediation of parental educational level on fruit and vegetable intake among schoolchildren in ten European countries. Public Health Nutr 2014; 18(1): 89–99.
[29] Korinek EV, Bartholomew JB, Jowers EM, Latimer LA. Fruit and Vegetable Exposure in Children is Linked to the Selection of a Wider Variety of Healthy Foods at School. Matern Child Nutr 2015; 11(4): 999–1010.
[30] Wolnicka K, Jaczewska-Schuetz J, Taraszewska A. Analiza czynników wpływających na spożycie warzyw i owoców przez dzieci w wieku szkolnym. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2014; 95(2): 389-393.
[31] Harris TS, Ramsey M. Paternal modeling, household availability, and paternal intake as predictors of fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption among African American children. Appetite 2015; 85: 171-177.
[32] Bjelland M, Lien N, Grydeland M et al. Intakes and perceived home availability of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetables as reported by mothers, fathers and adolescents in the HEIA (HEalth In Adolescents) study. Public Health Nutr 2011; 14(12): 2156–2165.
[33] Tada Y, Tomata Y, Sunami A et al. Examining the relationship between vegetable intake of mothers and that of their children: a cross-sectional study of 10- to 12-year old schoolchildren in Japan. Public Health Nutr 2015; 18(17): 3166–3171.