International Science Index


Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids


In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.


[1] W. J. Cantwell and J. Morton, “the significance of damage and defects and their detection in composite materials: a review”, Journal of Strain Analysis, 27 (1), 1992.
[2] K. Senthil et al., “Defects in composite structures: Its effects and prediction methods- A comprehensive review”, Composite Structures, 106, p. 139-149, 2013.
[3] E. S. Greenhalgh and M. J. Hiley, “Fractography of Polymer Composites: Current status and Future issues”, London Imperial College, 2015.
[4] O. Al-Khudairi et al., “Characterising mode I/mode II fatigue delamination growth in unidirectional fibre reinforced polymer laminates”, Materials and Design, 66, p. 93-102, 2015.
[5] J. P. Casas-Rodriguez, I. A. Ashcrof and V. V. Silberschmidt, “Delamination in adhesively bonded CFRP joints: Standard fatigue, impact fatigue and intermittent impact”, Composites Science and Technology, 68, p 2401-2409, 2008.
[6] P. N. Parkes et al., “Static strength of metal-composite joints with penetrative reinforcement”, Composite Structures, 118, p. 250-256, 2014.
[7] J. Summa, M. Schwarz and H.-G. Herrmann, “Evaluating the Severity of Defects in a metal to CFRP hybrid-joint with in situ passive thermography damage monitoring”, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Integrity, Reliability & Failure, Porto, p. 117-126, 2016.
[8] Thermosensorik. Operating Manual – Infrared Camera Head QWIP 384 Dualband (2009).
[9] M. Schwarz, J. Summa and H.-G. Herrmann, “Characterizing Metal - CFRP Hybrid Structures by Nondestructive Testing Methods”, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Integrity, Reliability & Failure, IRF Porto, p. 127-136, 2016.
[10] C. Meola, “Origin and Theory of Infrared Thermography”, Infrared Thermography: Recent Advances and Future Trends, Meola, C. (Ed.), Bentham Science: New York, NY, USA (2012).
[11] X. P. V. Maldague, Theory and Practice of Infrared Technology for Nondestructive Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 15-32 (2001).
[12] V. Carl and G. Zenzinger, “Automatische Rissprüfung mit induktiv angeregter Thermografie“, DGZfP-Berichtsband 94, (2009).
[13] H. Rösner, U. Netzelmann, J. Hoffmann, W. Karpen, V. Kramb and N. Meyendorf, Thermographic Materials Characterization. Springer 246-285 (2004).
[14] P. Petcher, M. D. G. Potter and S. Dixon, “A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design for operation on rail”, NDT&E International 65, 1-7 (2014).
[15] K. Arun, R. Dhayalan, K. Balasubramaniam, B. Maxfield, P. Peres and D. Barnoncel, “An EMAT-based shear horizontal (SH) wave technique for adhesive bond inspection”, Proceedings of the National Seminar and Exhibition on NDE (2011).
[16] M. Castaings, “SH ultrasonic guided waves for the evaluation of interfacial adhesion”, Ultrasonics 54, 1760-1775 (2014).
[17] B. Le Crom and M. Castaings, “Shear horizontal guided wave modes to infer the shear stiffness of adhesive bond layers”, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 127(4), 2220-2230 (2010).
[18] P. Pérès, D. Barnoncel, K. Balasubramaniam and M. Castaings, “New Experimental Investigations Of Adhesive Bonds With Ultrasonic SH Guided Waves”, 18th International Conference on Composite Materials (2011).
[19] H.-J. Salzburger, F. Niese and G. Dobmann, “EMAT pipe inspection with guided waves”, Welding in the world, 56(5-6), 35-43 (2012).
[20] S. Quirin, S. Neuhaus and H.-G. Herrmann, “Testing Ultrasonic SH waves to estimate the quality of adhesive bonds in small hybrid structures”, Proceedings of Euro Hybrid Materials and Structures, Kaiserslautern, Germany (2016).