Investigation of Utilizing L-Band Horn Antenna in Landmine Detection
Landmine detection is an important and yet challenging problem remains to be solved. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a powerful and rapidly maturing technology for subsurface threat identification. The detection methodology of GPR depends mainly on the contrast of the dielectric properties of the searched target and its surrounding soil. This contrast produces a partial reflection of the electromagnetic pulses that are being transmitted into the soil and then being collected by the GPR. One of the most critical hardware components for the performance of GPR is the antenna system. The current paper explores the design and simulation of a pyramidal horn antenna operating at L-band frequencies (1- 2 GHz) to detect a landmine. A prototype model of the GPR system setup is developed to simulate full wave analysis of the electromagnetic fields in different soil types. The contrast in the dielectric permittivity of the landmine and the sandy soil is the most important parameter to be considered for detecting the presence of landmine. L-band horn antenna is proved to be well-versed in the investigation of landmine detection.
 L. Li, A.E Choon Tan, K. Jhamb and K. Rambabu, “ Buried object characterization using ultra-wideband ground penetrating radar” IEEE Transaction on Microwave and Techniques, vol.60, no. 8, Aug. 2012.
 Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Tarek M. Said and Amr M. Gody, “A Non-destructive Electromagnetic-based Model for Detecting Water Pollution in Underground Pipelines,” Al-Azhar University Engineering Journal, JAUES, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp.1-8, Dec. 2014.
 Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Tarek M. Said, Amr M. Gody, “Microwave Detection of Water Pollution in Underground Pipelines,” International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies, IJWMT, vol.4, no.3, pp.1-15, Oct. 2014.
 J. Francke, “Applications of GPR in mineral resource evaluations,” in 13th Int. Ground Penetrating Radar Conf., Lecce, Italy, 21–25, pp. 1–5, June 2010.
 Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Tarek M. Said, “Measured Dielectric Permittivity of Contaminated Sandy Soil at Microwave Frequency,” Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, JMOe, vol.15, no.2, pp. 51-58, June 2016.
 Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Tarek M. Said, and Amr M. Gody, “Developing of A Ground Penetrating Radar Antenna for Detecting Water Pollution in Underground Pipelines,” International Journal of Microwaves Applications, vol. 4, no. 1, Feb. 2015.
 C. A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design,” John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2005.
 V. Ohri, O. Amin, H. Gebremariam, B. Dubois, “Microwave Horn Antenna Design and Test System,” Senior Design Project II, San Jose State University, 2003.
 H. Trang, “Simulation of mine detection over dry soil, snow, ice and water,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2765, pp. 430-440, 1996.