International Science Index


10007361

Parametric Design as an Approach to Respond to Complexity

Abstract:

A city is an intertwined texture from the relationship of different components in a whole which is united in a one, so designing the whole complex and its planning is not an easy matter. By considering that a city is a complex system with infinite components and communications, providing flexible layouts that can respond to the unpredictable character of the city, which is a result of its complexity, is inevitable. Parametric design approach as a new approach can produce flexible and transformative layouts in any stage of design. This study aimed to introduce parametric design as a modern approach to respond to complex urban issues by using descriptive and analytical methods. This paper firstly introduces complex systems and then giving a brief characteristic of complex systems. The flexible design and layout flexibility is another matter in response and simulation of complex urban systems that should be considered in design, which is discussed in this study. In this regard, after describing the nature of the parametric approach as a flexible approach, as well as a tool and appropriate way to respond to features such as limited predictability, reciprocating nature, complex communications, and being sensitive to initial conditions and hierarchy, this paper introduces parametric design.

References:
[1] Mashhoodi. Sohrab, "Fluid foundations of urban design". Publication Processing and urban planning, Tehran, Second Edition, 2007,pp.111
[2] Batty, M. (2008). The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science, 319(5864)769-771.
[3] Batty, M. (2007). Complexity in city systems: understanding, evolution. Retrieved from
[4] Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos, Viking Penguin. New York, 193.
[5] Gribbin, J. (2004) Deep Simplicity: chaos, complexity and the emergence of life, London: Allen Lane.
[6] Durlauf, S. N. (2005) ‘Complexity and Empirical Economics’, The Economic Journal (vol.115), pp.225-243.
[7] Cooper, J. (2000) The Potential of Chaos and Fractal Application in Urban Design, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Oxford: Oxford Brooks University.
[8] Portugali, J. (2000) Self-Organization and the City, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
[9] Wilson, A. (2000) Complex Spatial Systems: the modelling foundations of urban and regional analysis, England: Pearson Education Limited.
[10] Haghani, T. (2009). Fractal Geometry, Complexity, and the Nature of Urban Morphological Evolution: Developing a fractal analysis tool to assess urban morphological change at neighbourhood level. Birmingham City University.
[11] Cilliers, P. (1998) Complexity and Postmodernism: understanding complex systems, London: Routledge.
[12] J. P. Crutchfield, K. Young, in the Santa Fe Institute, Westview. (Citeseer, 1988).G. R. Faulhaber, “Design of service systems with priority reservation,” in Conf. Rec. 1995 World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Int. Conf. Communications, pp. 3–8.
[13] Byrne, D. (1998) Complexity Theory and Social Sciences, London: Routledge
[14] Lorenz E. (1963) ‘Deterministic non-periodic flow’, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, no.20, pp.1-11.
[15] Batty, M. (2005) Cities and Complexity: understanding cities with cellular automata, agent-base models, and fractals, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
[16] Waldrop, M. M. (1992) Complexity: the emerging science at the edge of order and chaos, London: Simon & Shuster.
[17] Alexander, C. (2002) The Nature of order: The Phenomenon of Life (vol.1), California, Berkeley: The Centre for Environmental Structure.
[18] Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Vintage Books, Random House.
[19] Alexander, C. (1965) ‘A City is Not a Tree’, Architectural Forum (vol.122), no.1-2, pp.58-62.
[20] Alexander, C. (1977) A Pattern Language, New York: Oxford University Press.
[21] De Neufville, R., de Weck, O., Frey, D., Hastings, D., Larson, R., Simchi-Levi, D., Welsch, R. (2004). Uncertainty management for engineering systems planning and design. Paper presented at the Engineering Systems Symposium, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
[22] McConnell, J. B. (2007). A life-cycle flexibility framework for designing, evaluating and managing" complex" real options: case studies in urban transportation and aircraft systems. Citeseerx.
[23] Gupta, Y. P., & Goyal, S. (1989). Flexibility of manufacturing systems: concepts and measurements. European journal of operational research, (432, 119-135).
[24] Gifford, J. L. (2003). Flexible urban transportation.
[25] Allen, T., Moses, J., Hastings, D., Lloyd, S., Little, J., McGowan, D., Roos, D. (2001). ESD Terms and Definitions (Version 12). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
[26] Gausa, M., & Salazar, J. (2002). Housing and Single-family Housing: Springer Science & Business Media.
[27] Bentley, I. (1985). Responsive environments: A manual for designers: Routledge.
[28] Sushil, & Stohr, E. A. (2014). The Flexible Enterprise: Springer.
[29] Beirão, J. (2012). CItymaker–designing grammars for urban design, architecture and the built environment. Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture.
[30] Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner.
[31] Davis, D. (2013). Modelled on Software Engineering: Flexible Parametric Models in the Practice of Architecture. RMIT University.
[32] G. Ferguson, A. D. Woodbury, Urban heat island in the subsurface. Geophysical Research Letters 34, (2007).
[33] Burry, J., & Burry, M. (2006). Sharing hidden power-Communicating latency in digital models.
[34] Hudson, R. (2010). Strategies for parametric design in architecture: an application of practice led research. University of Bath.
[35] Gerber, D. J. (2007) Parametric practices: models for design exploration in architecture: Harvard University.
[36] Kolarevic, B., & Malkawi, A. (2005). Performative Architecture: Routledge.
[37] Monedero, J. (2000). Parametric design: a review and some experiences. Automation in Construction, 9(4), 369-377.
[38] Yu, R., Gu, N., & Ostwald, M. (2013). Comparing Designers’ Problem-Solving Behavior in a Parametric Design Environment and a Geometric Modeling Environment. Buildings, 3(3), 621-638
[39] J. A. Pooler, The use of spatial separation in the measurement of transportation accessibility. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 29, 421-427 (1995).
[40] Batty, M., & Densham, P. (1996). Decision support, GIS and urban planning. Sistema terra, 5, 72-76.
[41] K. Scheidtmann, W. Fries, F. Müller, E. Koenig, Effect of levodopa in combination with physiotherapy on functional motor recovery after stroke: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. The Lancet 358, 787-790 (2001).
[42] Varaku, E. (2013). Computational Architecture: Focusing on perception and functionality aspects of urban intervention. TU Delft, Delft University of Technology.
[43] Steinø, N., & Obeling, E. (2014). Developing a parametric urban design tool. Some structural challenges and possible ways to overcome them. Architecturae et Artibus, 6(1), 51--57.
[44] Mitchell, W. J., Liggett, R. S., & Kvan, T. (1987). The art of computer graphics programming: a structured introduction for architects and designers: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
[45] Taleb, H., & Musleh, M. A. (2015). Applying urban parametric design optimisation processes to a hot climate: Case study of the UAE. Sustainable Cities and Society, 14, 236-253.
[46] R. Woodbury, Elements of parametric design. (2010).
[47] https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/complexity