Design and Implementation of Medium Access Control Based Routing on Real Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed
IEEE 802.15.4 is a Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) standard combined with ZigBee, which is going to enable new applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) domain. In recent years, it has become a popular standard for WSNs. Wireless communication among sensor motes, enabled by IEEE 802.15.4 standard, is extensively replacing the existing wired technology in a wide range of monitoring and control applications. Researchers have proposed a routing framework and mechanism that interacts with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using software platform. In this paper, we have designed and implemented MAC based routing (MBR) based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard using a hardware platform “SENSEnuts”. The experimental results include data through light and temperature sensors obtained from communication between PAN coordinator and source node through coordinator, MAC address of some modules used in the experimental setup, topology of the network created for simulation and the remaining battery power of the source node. Our experimental effort on a WSN Testbed has helped us in bridging the gap between theoretical and practical aspect of implementing IEEE 802.15.4 for WSNs applications.
 S. H. R. Bukhari, M. H. Rehmani, and S. Siraj, “A Survey of Channel Bonding for Wireless Networks and Guidelines of Channel Bonding for Futuristic Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol 18, pp. 924 – 948, 2016.
 Y. Zou and G. Wang, “Intercept Behavior Analysis of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks in the Presence of Eavesdropping Attack”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol 12, pp. 780 - 787, 2016.
 J. Heo, J. Hong, Y. Cho, “EARQ: Energy Aware Routing for Real-Time and Reliable Communication in Wireless Industrial Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol 5, pp. 3 – 11, 2009.
 E. Lee, S. Park, F. Yu, and S. H. Kim, “Communication Model and Protocol based on Multiple Static Sinks for Supporting Mobile Users in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol 56, pp. 1652, 2010.
 X. Han, X. Cao, E. L. Lloyd, and Chien-Chung Shen, “Fault-Tolerant Relay Node Placement in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol 9, pp. 643 – 656, 2010.
 G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari, and C. S. Raghavendra, “Performance evaluation of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for low-rate low-power wireless network,” Proceedings of IEEE IPCC, Apr. 2004, pp. 701–706.
 J. Misic, V. B. Misic, and S. Shaﬁ, “Performance of IEEE802.15.4 beacon enabled PAN with uplink transmissions in non-saturation mode—Access delay for ﬁnite buffers,” Proceedings of IEEE BroadNets, San Jose, CA, Oct. 2004, pp. 416–425.
 J. Zheng and M. J. Lee, “Will IEEE802.15.4make ubiquitous networking a reality?: A discussion on a potential low power, low standard,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 140–146, Jun. 2004.
 N. Golmie, D. Cypher, and O. Rebala, “Performance analysis of low rate wireless technologies for medical applications,” Comput. Commun., vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1266–1275, 2005.
 J. Misic, S. Shaﬁ, and V. B. Misic, “Avoiding the bottlenecks in the MAC layer in 802.15.4 low rate WPAN,” Proceedings of ICPADS, Fukuoka, Japan, Jul. 2005, vol. 2, pp. 363–367.
 S. t. Sheu, Y. y. Shih and L. w. Chen, "Day and Night Access (DNA) Scheme for Low Power IEEE 802.15.4 WPANs," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Montreal, Que., 2006, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/VTCF.2006.498.
 K. S. Ting, G. K. Ee, C. K. Ng, N. K. Noordin and B. M. Ali, "The performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 against IEEE 802.15.4 with low transmission power," The 17th Asia Pacific Conference on Communications, Sabah, 2011, pp. 850-855.
 Balaji Polepalli; Weigao Xie; Dhanashree Thangaraja; Mukul Goyal; Hossein Hosseini; Yusuf Bashir, “Impact of IEEE 802.11n Operation on IEEE 802.15.4 Operation”, Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, WAINA '09. International Conference, Pages: 328 - 333, 2009.
 Yan Sun; Le Li; Hong Luo,” Design and Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 Mac Protocol on FPGA”, Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), 7th International Conference, Pages: 1 – 5, 2011.
 Cheng Leong Lim, M. Bolt, A. Syed, P. Ng, C. Goh and Yun Li, "Dynamic performance of IEEE 802.15.4 devices under persistent WiFi traffic," 2015 International Conference on Recent Advances in Internet of Things (RIoT), Singapore, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/RIOT.2015.7104914.
 W. Yuan, X. Wang and J. P. M. G. Linnartz, "A Coexistence Model of IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b/g," 14th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux, Delft, 2007, pp.1-5.doi: 10.1109/SCVT.2007.4436237.
 M. Petrova, J. Riihijarvi, P. Mahonen and S. Labella, "Performance study of IEEE 802.15.4 using measurements and simulations," IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2006. WCNC 2006., Las Vegas, NV, 2006, pp. 487-492. doi: 10.1109/WCNC.2006.1683512
 W. Yuan, J. P. M. G. Linnartz and I. G. M. M. Niemegeers, "Adaptive CCA for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks to Mitigate Interference," IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference, Sydney, NSW, 2010, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/WCNC.2010.5506124.
 P. Bartolomeu and J. Fonseca, "An assessment of the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY immunity to WiFi interference," IEEE 15th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2010), Bilbao, 2010, pp.1-4. doi: 10.1109/ETFA.2010.5641072.