Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air Particulate Matter
An assessment of the air quality of Győr (Hungary) was performed by determining the ambient concentrations of PM10-bound carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) in different seasons. A high volume sampler was used for the collection of ambient aerosol particles, and the associated cPAH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[a]anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, indeno[123-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[ah]anthracene) were analyzed by a gas chromatographic method. Higher mean concentrations of total cPAHs were detected in samples collected in winter (9.62 ng/m3) and autumn (2.69 ng/m3) compared to spring (1.05 ng/m3) and summer (0.21 ng/m3). The calculated BaP toxic equivalent concentrations have also reflected that the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. Moreover, the concentration levels of cPAHs determined in this study were compared to other Hungarian urban sites.
 ATSDR, Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1995.
 K. Srogi, “Monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review,” Environ. Chem. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 169–195, 2007.
 K. Ravindra, R. Sokhi, R. V. Grieken, “Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source attribution, emission factors and regulation,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2895–2921, 2008.
 L. R. Nino, R. J. Torres, A. A. Mozeto, P. S. Fadini, “Using urban streams as drinking water: The potential risk in respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in sediments,“ Polycycl. Aromat. Compd., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 518–531, 2014.
 EEA, Air quality in Europe – 2013 report. European Environment Agency, Luxembourg, 2013.
 WHO, Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, global update 2005. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2005.
 J. Szabó, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Erdős, ”Ambient concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in an urban site of Győr, Hungary,” Air Qual. Atm. Hlth., vol. 8, pp. 229–241, 2015.
 A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős, “Seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with PM10 in Győr, Hungary,” Int. J. Environ. Chem. Ecol. Geol. Geophys. Eng., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 872–876, 2015.
 MSZ EN 12341:2000, Air quality. Determination of the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter. Reference method and field test procedure to demonstrate reference equivalence of measurement methods, Hungarian Standard Association, Budapest, 2000.
 MSZ EN 15549:2008, Air quality. Standard method for measurement of the concentration of benzo
[a]pyrene in ambient air. Hungarian Standard Association, Budapest, 2008.
 Y. L. M. A. B. D Limu, D. L. N. T. Lifu, A. B. L. Y. Miti, X. Wang, X. Ding, “Autumn and wintertime polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 from Urumqi, China,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 13, pp. 407–414, 2013.
 US EPA, Risk assessment guidance for superfund volume I, human health evaluation manual (Part A). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 1989.
 P. Bohlin, O. Audy, L. Skrdlíková, P. Kukucka, S. Vojta, P. Pribylová1, R. Prokes, P. Cupr, J. Klánová, ”Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air 6 samplers to assess semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial 7 indoor environments,” Environ. Sci. Process Impacts, vol. 16, no.11, pp. 2617–2626, 2014.
 V. Singla, T. Pachauri, A. Satsangi, K. M. Kumari, A. Lakhani, ”Characterization and mutagenicity assessment of PM2.5 and PM10 PAH at Agra, India,” Polycycl. Aromat. Compd., vol. 32, pp. 199–220, 2012.
 J. Han, N. Zhang, C. Niu, B. Han, Z. Bai, “Personal exposure of children to particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Tianjin, China,” Polycycl. Aromat. Compd., vol. 34, pp. 320–342, 2014.
 MRBCA, Exposure factors. Missouri risk-based corrective action technical guidance, appendix E, https://dnr.mo.gov/env/hwp/mrbca/docs/MRBCAExposureFactorsComparison.pdf.
 US EPA, Toxicological review of benzo
[a]pyrene. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 2012.
 OMSZ ÉLFO, Summary of the OLM PM10 sampling program in 2014. Reference Centre for Air Quality Protection, Budapest, 2014 (in Hungarian).
 F. Valerio, A. Lazzarotto. "Photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in real and laboratory conditions," Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., vol. 23., no. 1–2, pp. 135–151, 1985.