International Science Index
International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering
Unsteady Rayleigh-Bénard Convection of Nanoliquids in Enclosures
Rayleigh-B´enard convection of a nanoliquid in shallow, square and tall enclosures is studied using the Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single-phase model. The thermophysical properties of water, copper, copper-oxide, alumina, silver and titania at 3000 K under stagnant conditions that are collected from literature are used in calculating thermophysical properties of water-based nanoliquids. Phenomenological laws and mixture theory are used for calculating thermophysical properties. Free-free, rigid-rigid and rigid-free boundary conditions are considered in the study. Intractable Lorenz model for each boundary combination is derived and then reduced to the tractable Ginzburg-Landau model. The amplitude thus obtained is used to quantify the heat transport in terms of Nusselt number. Addition of nanoparticles is shown not to alter the influence of the nature of boundaries on the onset of convection as well as on heat transport. Amongst the three enclosures considered, it is found that tall and shallow enclosures transport maximum and minimum energy respectively. Enhancement of heat transport due to nanoparticles in the three enclosures is found to be in the range 3% - 11%. Comparison of results in the case of rigid-rigid boundaries is made with those of an earlier work and good agreement is found. The study has limitations in the sense that thermophysical properties are calculated by using various quantities modelled for static condition.
Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft
Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.
Assessment of Modern RANS Models for the C3X Vane Film Cooling Prediction
The paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of several modern Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for prediction of C3X vane film cooling at various injection regimes. Three models are considered, namely the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, the modification of the SST model accounting for the streamlines curvature (SST-CC), and the Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (EARSM). It is shown that all the considered models face with a problem in prediction of the adiabatic effectiveness in the vicinity of the cooling holes; however, accounting for the Reynolds stress anisotropy within the EARSM model noticeably increases the solution accuracy. On the other hand, further downstream all the models provide a reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the adiabatic effectiveness and among the considered models the most accurate results are obtained with the use EARMS.
Optimizing Machine Vision System Setup Accuracy by Six-Sigma DMAIC Approach
Machine vision system provides automatic inspection to reduce manufacturing costs considerably. However, only a few principles have been found to optimize machine vision system and help it function more accurately in industrial practice. Mostly, there were complicated and impractical design techniques to improve the accuracy of machine vision system. This paper discusses implementing the Six Sigma Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) approach to optimize the setup parameters of machine vision system when it is used as a direct measurement technique. This research follows a case study showing how Six Sigma DMAIC methodology has been put into use.
Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic
According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.
Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness
Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the
failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces
these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor
cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the
conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum
assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex
geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be
determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper
examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect
of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent
stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger
as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical
model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale
finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.
Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System
This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system
consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is
subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution
and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system
is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its
deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the
failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2
will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1
or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1
or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM)
levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit
2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration
level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit
2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although
unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find
the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and
preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run
expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and
solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework.
Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the
proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an
optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is
Modeling Sustainable Truck Rental Operations Using Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network
Moving industries consume numerous resources and dispose masses of used packaging materials. Proper sorting, recycling and disposing the packaging materials is necessary to avoid a sever pollution disaster. This research paper presents a conceptual model to propose sustainable truck rental operations instead of the regular one. An optimization model was developed to select the locations of truck rental centers, collection sites, maintenance and repair sites, and identify the rental fees to be charged for all routes that maximize the total closed supply chain profits. Fixed costs of vehicle purchasing, costs of constructing collection centers and repair centers, as well as the fixed costs paid to use disposal and recycling centers are considered. Operating costs include the truck maintenance, repair costs as well as the cost of recycling and disposing the packing materials, and the costs of relocating the truck are presented in the model. A mixed integer model is developed followed by a simulation model to examine the factors affecting the operation of the model.
Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector
The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.
Study of Rayleigh-Bénard-Brinkman Convection Using LTNE Model and Coupled, Real Ginzburg-Landau Equations
A local nonlinear stability analysis using a eight-mode
expansion is performed in arriving at the coupled amplitude equations
for Rayleigh-Bénard-Brinkman convection (RBBC) in the presence
of LTNE effects. Streamlines and isotherms are obtained in the
two-dimensional unsteady finite-amplitude convection regime. The
parameters’ influence on heat transport is found to be more
pronounced at small time than at long times. Results of the
Rayleigh-Bénard convection is obtained as a particular case of
the present study. Additional modes are shown not to significantly
influence the heat transport thus leading us to infer that five minimal
modes are sufficient to make a study of RBBC. The present problem
that uses rolls as a pattern of manifestation of instability is a needed
first step in the direction of making a very general non-local study of
two-dimensional unsteady convection. The results may be useful in
determining the preferred range of parameters’ values while making
rheometric measurements in fluids to ascertain fluid properties such
as viscosity. The results of LTE are obtained as a limiting case of
the results of LTNE obtained in the paper.
CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil
The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.
Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor Convection of Newtonian Nanoliquid
In the paper we make linear and non-linear stability
analyses of Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a Newtonian nanoliquid
in a rotating medium (called as Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor convection).
Rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries are considered for investigation.
Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single phase model is used for studying
instabilities in nanoliquids. Various thermophysical properties of
nanoliquid are obtained using phenomenological laws and mixture
theory. The eigen boundary value problem is solved for the Rayleigh
number using an analytical method by considering trigonometric
eigen functions. We observe that the critical nanoliquid Rayleigh
number is less than that of the base liquid. Thus the onset of
convection is advanced due to the addition of nanoparticles. So,
increase in volume fraction leads to advanced onset and thereby
increase in heat transport. The amplitudes of convective modes
required for estimating the heat transport are determined analytically.
The tri-modal standard Lorenz model is derived for the steady state
assuming small scale convective motions. The effect of rotation on
the onset of convection and on heat transport is investigated and
depicted graphically. It is observed that the onset of convection is
delayed due to rotation and hence leads to decrease in heat transport.
Hence, rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. This is due to
the fact that the energy of the system is used to create the component
V. We observe that the amount of heat transport is less in the case
of rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries compared to free-free isothermal
Empirical Heat Transfer Correlations of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers in Pulsatile Flow
An experimental study on finned-tube radiators has been conducted. Three radiators found in desktop computers sized for 120 mm fans were tested in steady and pulsatile flows of ambient air over a Reynolds number range of 50 < Re < 900. Water at 60 °C was circulated through the radiators to maintain a constant fin temperature during the tests. For steady flow, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased linearly with the mass flow rate of air. The pulsatile flow experiments showed that frequency of pulsation had a negligible effect on the heat transfer rate for the range of frequencies tested (0.5 Hz – 2.5 Hz). For all three radiators, the heat transfer rate was decreased in the case of pulsatile flow. Linear heat transfer correlations for steady and pulsatile flow were calculated in terms of Reynolds number and Nusselt number.
Heat Transfer Dependent Vortex Shedding of Thermo-Viscous Shear-Thinning Fluids
Non-Newtonian fluid properties can change the flow
behaviour significantly, its prediction is more difficult when thermal
effects come into play. Hence, the focal point of this work is the
wake flow behind a heated circular cylinder in the laminar vortex
shedding regime for thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids. In the case
of isothermal flows of Newtonian fluids the vortex shedding regime
is characterised by a distinct Reynolds number and an associated
Strouhal number. In the case of thermo-viscous shear thinning
fluids the flow regime can significantly change in dependence of
the temperature of the viscous wall of the cylinder. The Reynolds
number alters locally and, consequentially, the Strouhal number
globally. In the present CFD study the temperature dependence of
the Reynolds and Strouhal number is investigated for the flow of a
Carreau fluid around a heated cylinder. The temperature dependence
of the fluid viscosity has been modelled by applying the standard
Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. In the present simulation
campaign thermal boundary conditions have been varied over a
wide range in order to derive a relation between dimensionless heat
transfer, Reynolds and Strouhal number. Together with the shear
thinning due to the high shear rates close to the cylinder wall
this leads to a significant decrease of viscosity of three orders of
magnitude in the nearfield of the cylinder and a reduction of two
orders of magnitude in the wake field. Yet the shear thinning effect
is able to change the flow topology: a complex K´arm´an vortex street
occurs, also revealing distinct characteristic frequencies associated
with the dominant and sub-dominant vortices. Heating up the cylinder
wall leads to a delayed flow separation and narrower wake flow,
giving lesser space for the sequence of counter-rotating vortices. This
spatial limitation does not only reduce the amplitude of the oscillating
wake flow it also shifts the dominant frequency to higher frequencies,
furthermore it damps higher harmonics. Eventually the locally heated
wake flow smears out. Eventually, the CFD simulation results of the
systematically varied thermal flow parameter study have been used
to describe a relation for the main characteristic order parameters.
Hybrid Quasi-Steady Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Behavior of Oil in Water Emulsions Used in Machining Tool Cooling and Lubrication
Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.
A Partially Accelerated Life Test Planning with Competing Risks and Linear Degradation Path under Tampered Failure Rate Model
In this paper, we propose a method to model the
relationship between failure time and degradation for a simple step
stress test where underlying degradation path is linear and different
causes of failure are possible. It is assumed that the intensity function
depends only on the degradation value. No assumptions are made
about the distribution of the failure times. A simple step-stress test
is used to shorten failure time of products and a tampered failure
rate (TFR) model is proposed to describe the effect of the changing
stress on the intensities. We assume that some of the products that
fail during the test have a cause of failure that is only known to
belong to a certain subset of all possible failures. This case is known
as masking. In the presence of masking, the maximum likelihood
estimates (MLEs) of the model parameters are obtained through an
expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by treating the causes of
failure as missing values. The effect of incomplete information on the
estimation of parameters is studied through a Monte-Carlo simulation.
Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the
On the Free-Surface Generated by the Flow over an Obstacle in a Hydraulic Channel
The aim of this paper is to report the different experimental studies, conducted in the laboratory, dealing with the flow in the presence of an obstacle lying in a rectangular hydraulic channel. Both subcritical and supercritical regimes are considered. Generally, when considering the theoretical problem of the free-surface flow, in a fluid domain of finite depth, due to the presence of an obstacle, we suppose that the water is an inviscid fluid, which means that there is no sheared velocity profile, but constant upstream. In a hydraulic channel, it is impossible to satisfy this condition. Indeed, water is a viscous fluid and its velocity is null at the bottom. The two configurations are presented, i.e. a flow over an obstacle and a towed obstacle in a resting fluid.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: Case Study of Maku City, Iran
This paper aims to determine the best environmental and economic scenario for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management of the Maku city by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The functional elements of this study are collection, transportation, and disposal of MSW in Maku city. Waste composition and density, as two key parameters of MSW, have been determined by field sampling, and then, the other important specifications of MSW like chemical formula, thermal energy and water content were calculated. These data beside other information related to collection and disposal facilities are used as a reliable source of data to assess the environmental impacts of different waste management options, including landfills, composting, recycling and energy recovery. The environmental impact of MSW management options has been investigated in 15 different scenarios by Integrated Waste Management (IWM) software. The photochemical smog, greenhouse gases, acid gases, toxic emissions, and energy consumption of each scenario are measured. Then, the environmental indices of each scenario are specified by weighting these parameters. Economic costs of scenarios have been also compared with each other based on literature. As final result, since the organic materials make more than 80% of the waste, compost can be a suitable method. Although the major part of the remaining 20% of waste can be recycled, due to the high cost of necessary equipment, the landfill option has been suggested. Therefore, the scenario with 80% composting and 20% landfilling is selected as superior environmental and economic scenario. This study shows that, to select a scenario with practical applications, simultaneously environmental and economic aspects of different scenarios must be considered.
Throughflow Effects on Thermal Convection in Variable Viscosity Ferromagnetic Liquids
The problem of thermal convection in temperature and
magnetic field sensitive Newtonian ferromagnetic liquid is studied
in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field and throughflow.
Using a combination of Galerkin and shooting techniques the critical
eigenvalues are obtained for stationary mode. The effect of Prandtl
number (Pr > 1) on onset is insignificant and nonlinearity of
non-buoyancy magnetic parameter M3 is found to have no influence
on the onset of ferroconvection. The magnetic buoyancy number, M1
and variable viscosity parameter, V have destabilizing influences on
the system. The effect of throughflow Peclet number, Pe is to delay
the onset of ferroconvection and this effect is independent of the
direction of flow.
Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility
Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.
Optimal Performance of Plastic Extrusion Process Using Fuzzy Goal Programming
This study optimized the performance of plastic extrusion process of drip irrigation pipes using fuzzy goal programming. Two main responses were of main interest; roll thickness and hardness. Four main process factors were studied. The L18 array was then used for experimental design. The individual-moving range control charts were used to assess the stability of the process, while the process capability index was used to assess process performance. Confirmation experiments were conducted at the obtained combination of optimal factor setting by fuzzy goal programming. The results revealed that process capability was improved significantly from -1.129 to 0.8148 for roll thickness and from 0.0965 to 0.714 and hardness. Such improvement results in considerable savings in production and quality costs.
High Sensitivity Crack Detection and Locating with Optimized Spatial Wavelet Analysis
In this study, a spatial wavelet-based crack localization technique for a thick beam is presented. Wavelet scale in spatial wavelet transformation is optimized to enhance crack detection sensitivity. A windowing function is also employed to erase the edge effect of the wavelet transformation, which enables the method to detect and localize cracks near the beam/measurement boundaries. Theoretical model and vibration analysis considering the crack effect are first proposed and performed in MATLAB based on the Timoshenko beam model. Gabor wavelet family is applied to the beam vibration mode shapes derived from the theoretical beam model to magnify the crack effect so as to locate the crack. Relative wavelet coefficient is obtained for sensitivity analysis by comparing the coefficient values at different positions of the beam with the lowest value in the intact area of the beam. Afterward, the optimal wavelet scale corresponding to the highest relative wavelet coefficient at the crack position is obtained for each vibration mode, through numerical simulations. The same procedure is performed for cracks with different sizes and positions in order to find the optimal scale range for the Gabor wavelet family. Finally, Hanning window is applied to different vibration mode shapes in order to overcome the edge effect problem of wavelet transformation and its effect on the localization of crack close to the measurement boundaries. Comparison of the wavelet coefficients distribution of windowed and initial mode shapes demonstrates that window function eases the identification of the cracks close to the boundaries.
Theoretical Analysis of Self-Starting Busemann Intake Family
In this work, startability of the Busemann intake family with weak/strong conical shock, as most efficient intakes, via overboard mass spillage method is theoretically analyzed. Masterix and Candifix codes are used to numerically simulate few models of this type of intake and verify the theoretical results. Portions of the intake corresponding to various flow capture angles are considered to have mass spillage in the starting process of this intake. This approach allows for overboard mass spillage via a V-shaped slot with the tip of V coinciding with the focal point of the Busemann flow. The theoretical results, achieved using two different theories, of self-started Busemann takes with weak/strong conical shock show that significant improve in intake startability using overboard spillage technique. The starting phenomena of Busemann intakes with weak conical shock and seven different capture angles are numerically simulated at freestream Mach number of 3 to find the minimum area ratios of self-started intakes. The numerical results confirm the theoretical ones achieved by authors.
Optimal Design of Composite Patch for a Cracked Pipe by Utilizing Genetic Algorithm and Finite Element Method
Composite patching is a common way for reinforcing the cracked pipes and cylinders. The effects of composite patch reinforcement on fracture parameters of a cracked pipe depend on a variety of parameters such as number of layers, angle, thickness, and material of each layer. Therefore, stacking sequence optimization of composite patch becomes crucial for the applications of cracked pipes. In this study, in order to obtain the optimal stacking sequence for a composite patch that has minimum weight and maximum resistance in propagation of cracks, a coupled Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) and Finite Element Method (FEM) process is proposed. This optimization process has done for longitudinal and transverse semi-elliptical cracks and optimal stacking sequences and Pareto’s front for each kind of cracks are presented. The proposed algorithm is validated against collected results from the existing literature.
Investigating Breakdowns in Human Robot Interaction: A Conversation Analysis Guided Single Case Study of a Human-Robot Communication in a Museum Environment
In a single case study, we show how a conversation analysis (CA) approach can shed light onto the sequential unfolding of human-robot interaction. Relying on video data, we are able to show that CA allows us to investigate the respective turn-taking systems of humans and a NAO robot in their dialogical dynamics, thus pointing out relevant differences. Our fine grained video analysis points out occurring breakdowns and their overcoming, when humans and a NAO-robot engage in a multimodally uttered multi-party communication during a sports guessing game. Our findings suggest that interdisciplinary work opens up the opportunity to gain new insights into the challenging issues of human robot communication in order to provide resources for developing mechanisms that enable complex human-robot interaction (HRI).
Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor
Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.
Series-Parallel Systems Reliability Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm and Statistical Analysis
The main objective of this paper is to optimize series-parallel system reliability using Genetic Algorithm (GA) and statistical analysis; considering system reliability constraints which involve the redundant numbers of selected components, total cost, and total weight. To perform this work, firstly the mathematical model which maximizes system reliability subject to maximum system cost and maximum system weight constraints is presented; secondly, a statistical analysis is used to optimize GA parameters, and thirdly GA is used to optimize series-parallel systems reliability. The objective is to determine the strategy choosing the redundancy level for each subsystem to maximize the overall system reliability subject to total cost and total weight constraints. Finally, the series-parallel system case study reliability optimization results are showed, and comparisons with the other previous results are presented to demonstrate the performance of our GA.
Optimization of Machining Parametric Study on Electrical Discharge Machining
Productivity and quality are two important aspects that have become great concerns in today’s competitive global market. Every production/manufacturing unit mainly focuses on these areas in relation to the process, as well as the product developed. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, even now it is an experience process, wherein the selected parameters are still often far from the maximum, and at the same time selecting optimization parameters is costly and time consuming. Material Removal Rate (MRR) during the process has been considered as a productivity estimate with the aim to maximize it, with an intention of minimizing surface roughness taken as most important output parameter. These two opposites in nature requirements have been simultaneously satisfied by selecting an optimal process environment (optimal parameter setting). Objective function is obtained by Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance. Then objective function is optimized using Genetic Algorithm technique. The model is shown to be effective; MRR and Surface Roughness improved using optimized machining parameters.
Innovative Design Considerations for Adaptive Spacecraft
Space technologies have changed the way we live in the present day society and manage many aspects of our daily affairs through Remote sensing, Navigation & Communications. Further, defense and military usage of spacecraft has increased tremendously along with civilian purposes. The number of satellites deployed in space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and the Geostationary Orbit (GEO) has gone up. The dependency on remote sensing and operational capabilities are most invariably to be exploited more and more in future. Every country is acquiring spacecraft in one way or other for their daily needs, and spacecraft numbers are likely to increase significantly and create spacecraft traffic problems. The aim of this research paper is to propose innovative design concepts for adaptive spacecraft. The main idea here is to improve existing design methods of spacecraft design and development to further improve upon design considerations for futuristic adaptive spacecraft with inbuilt features for automatic adaptability and self-protection. In other words, the innovative design considerations proposed here are to have future spacecraft with self-organizing capabilities for orbital control and protection from anti-satellite weapons (ASAT). Here, an attempt is made to propose design and develop futuristic spacecraft for 2030 and beyond due to tremendous advancements in VVLSI, miniaturization, and nano antenna array technologies, including nano technologies are expected.
, low earth orbit
, medium earth orbit
, geostationary earth orbit
, self-organizing control system
, anti-satellite weapons
, orbital control
, radar warning receiver
, missile warning receiver
, laser warning receiver
, attitude and orbit control systems
, command and data handling.
Minimum-Fuel Optimal Trajectory for Reusable First-Stage Rocket Landing Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) present a more environmentally-friendly approach to accessing space when compared to traditional launch vehicles that are discarded after each flight. This paper studies the recyclable nature of RLVs by presenting a solution method for determining minimum-fuel optimal trajectories using principles from optimal control theory and particle swarm optimization (PSO). This problem is formulated as a minimum-landing error powered descent problem where it is desired to move the RLV from a fixed set of initial conditions to three different sets of terminal conditions. However, unlike other powered descent studies, this paper considers the highly nonlinear effects caused by atmospheric drag, which are often ignored for studies on the Moon or on Mars. Rather than optimizing the controls directly, the throttle control is assumed to be bang-off-bang with a predetermined thrust direction for each phase of flight. The PSO method is verified in a one-dimensional comparison study, and it is then applied to the two-dimensional cases, the results of which are illustrated.