International Science Index

International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering

315
2799
Large-Deflection Analysis of Automotive Vehicle's Door Wiring Harness System Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:

A Vehicle-s door wireing harness arrangement structure is provided. In vehicle-s door wiring harness(W/H) system is more toward to arrange a passenger compartment than a hinge and a weatherstrip. This article gives some insight into the dimensioning process, with special focus on large deflection analysis of wiring harness(W/H) in vehicle-s door structures for durability problem. An Finite elements analysis for door wiring harness(W/H) are used for residual stresses and dimensional stability with bending flexible. Durability test data for slim test specimens were compared with the numerical predicted fatigue life for verification. The final lifing of the component combines the effects of these microstructural features with the complex stress state arising from the combined service loading and residual stresses.

Paper Detail
2523
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314
9377
Effect of One-Handed Pushing and Puling Strength at Different Handle Heights in Vertical Direction
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to measure the maximal isometric strength and to investigate the effects of different handleheights and elbow angles with respect to Mid. sagittal plane on the pushing and pulling strength in vertical direction. Eight male subjects performed a series of static strength measurement for each subject. The highest isometric strength was found in pulling at shoulder height (S.H.) (Mean = 60.29 lb., SD = 16.78 lb.) and the lowest isometric strength was found also in pulling at elbow height (E.H.) (Mean = 33.06 lb., SD = 6.56 lb.). Although the isometric strengths were higher at S.H than at E.H. for both activities, the maximal isometric strengths were compared statistically. ANOVA was performed. The results of the experiment revealed that there was a significant different between handle heights. However, there were no significant different between angles and activities, also no correlation between grip strength and activities.
Paper Detail
1998
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313
14071
A New Shock Model for Systems Subject to Random Threshold Failure
Abstract:
This paper generalizes Yeh Lam-s shock model for renewal shock arrivals and random threshold. Several interesting statistical measures are explicitly obtained. A few special cases and an optimal replacement problem are also discussed.
Paper Detail
1038
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312
836
Optimal Manufacturing Scheduling for Dependent Details Processing
Abstract:
The increasing competitiveness in manufacturing industry is forcing manufacturers to seek effective processing schedules. The paper presents an optimization manufacture scheduling approach for dependent details processing with given processing sequences and times on multiple machines. By defining decision variables as start and end moments of details processing it is possible to use straightforward variables restrictions to satisfy different technological requirements and to formulate easy to understand and solve optimization tasks for multiple numbers of details and machines. A case study example is solved for seven base moldings for CNC metalworking machines processed on five different machines with given processing order among details and machines and known processing time-s duration. As a result of linear optimization task solution the optimal manufacturing schedule minimizing the overall processing time is obtained. The manufacturing schedule defines the moments of moldings delivery thus minimizing storage costs and provides mounting due-time satisfaction. The proposed optimization approach is based on real manufacturing plant problem. Different processing schedules variants for different technological restrictions were defined and implemented in the practice of Bulgarian company RAIS Ltd. The proposed approach could be generalized for other job shop scheduling problems for different applications.
Paper Detail
941
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311
14466
The Economic Lot Scheduling Problem in Flow Lines with Sequence-Dependent Setups
Abstract:
The problem of lot sizing, sequencing and scheduling multiple products in flow line production systems has been studied by several authors. Almost all of the researches in this area assumed that setup times and costs are sequence –independent even though sequence dependent setups are common in practice. In this paper we present a new mixed integer non linear program (MINLP) and a heuristic method to solve the problem in sequence dependent case. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm has been developed which applies this constructive heuristic to generate initial population. These two proposed solution methods are compared on randomly generated problems. Computational results show a clear superiority of our proposed GA for majority of the test problems.
Paper Detail
1019
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310
4217
Automation System for Optimization of Electrical and Thermal Energy Production in Cogenerative Gas Power Plants
Authors:
Abstract:
The system is made with main distributed components: First Level: Industrial Computers placed in Control Room (monitors thermal and electrical processes based on the data provided by the second level); Second Level: PLCs which collects data from process and transmits information on the first level; also takes commands from this level which are further, passed to execution elements from third level; Third Level: field elements consisting in 3 categories: data collecting elements; data transfer elements from the third level to the second; execution elements which take commands from the second level PLCs and executes them after which transmits the confirmation of execution to them. The purpose of the automatic functioning is the optimization of the co-generative electrical energy commissioning in the national energy system and the commissioning of thermal energy to the consumers. The integrated system treats the functioning of all the equipments and devices as a whole: Gas Turbine Units (GTU); MT 20kV Medium Voltage Station (MVS); 0,4 kV Low Voltage Station (LVS); Main Hot Water Boilers (MHW); Auxiliary Hot Water Boilers (AHW); Gas Compressor Unit (GCU); Thermal Agent Circulation Pumping Unit (TPU); Water Treating Station (WTS).
Paper Detail
1401
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309
8212
Microwave Drying System with High-Tech Phase Controller: A Modified Applicator
Abstract:

Microwave energy can be used for drying purpose. It is unique process. It is distinctly different from conventional drying process. It is advantageous over conventional drying / heating processes. When microwave energy is used for drying purpose, the process can be accelerated with a better control to achieve uniform heating, more conversion efficiency, selective drying and ultimately improved product quality of the output. Also, less floor space and compact system are the added advantages. Existing low power microwave drying system is to be modified with suitable applicator. Appropriate sensors are to be used to measure parameters like moisture, temperature, weight of sample. Suitable high tech controller is to be used to control microwave power continuously from minimum to maximum. Phase - controller, cycle - controller and PWM - controller are some of the advanced power control techniques. It has been proposed to work on turmeric using high-tech phase controller to control the microwave power conveniently. The drying of turmeric with microwave energy employing phase controller gives better results as formulated in this paper and hence new approach of processing turmeric will open future doors of profit making to allied industries and the farmers.

Paper Detail
1294
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308
5244
A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles
Abstract:
A 3D simulation study for an incompressible slip flow around a spherical aerosol particle was performed. The full Navier-Stokes equations were solved and the velocity jump at the gas-particle interface was treated numerically by imposition of the slip boundary condition. Analytical solution to the Stokesian slip flow past a spherical particle was used as a benchmark for code verification, and excellent agreement was achieved. The Simulation results showed that in addition to the Knudsen number, the Reynolds number affects the slip correction factor. Thus, the Cunningham-based slip corrections must be augmented by the inclusion of the effect of Reynolds number for application to Lagrangian tracking of fine particles. A new expression for the slip correction factor as a function of both Knudsen number and Reynolds number was developed.
Paper Detail
2702
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307
12220
Performance Characteristics of a Closed Circuit Cooling Tower with Multi Path
Abstract:
The experimental thermal performance of two heat exchangers in closed-wet cooling tower (CWCT) was investigated in this study. The test sections are heat exchangers which have multi path that is used as the entrance of cooling water and are consisting of bare-type copper tubes between 15.88mm and 19.05mm. The process fluids are the cooling water that flows from top part of heat exchanger to bottom side in the inner side of tube, and spray water that flows gravitational direction in the outer side of it. Air contacts its outer side of that as it counterflows. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and cooling capacity were calculated with variations of process fluids, multi path and different diameter tubes to figure out the performance of characteristics of CWCT. The main results were summarized as follows: The results show this experiment is reliable with values of heat and mass transfer coefficients comparing to values of correlations. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and cooling capacity of two paths are higher than these with one path using 15.88 and 19.05mm tubes. Cooling capacity per unit volume with 15.88mm tube using one and two paths are higher than 19.05mm tube due to increase of surface area per unit volume.
Paper Detail
1512
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306
6355
Theoretical Investigation of the Instantaneous Folding Force during the First Fold Creation in a Square Column
Abstract:
In this paper, a theoretical formula is presented to predict the instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation in a square column under axial loading. Calculations are based on analysis of “Basic Folding Mechanism" introduced by Wierzbicki and Abramowicz. For this purpose, the sum of dissipated energy rate under bending around horizontal and inclined hinge lines and dissipated energy rate under extensional deformations are equated to the work rate of the external force on the structure. Final formula obtained in this research, reasonably predicts the instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation versus folding distance and folding angle and also predicts the instantaneous folding force instead of the average value. Finally, according to the calculated theoretical relation, instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation in a square column was sketched versus folding distance and was compared to the experimental results which showed a good correlation.
Paper Detail
909
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305
212
Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Gas-Particle Interaction of Contoured Shock-Tube Flows: A Numerical Study
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize a prototype biolistic delivery system, the biomedical device based on the contoured-shock-tube design (CST), with the aim at investigating shocks induced flow instabilities within the contoured shock tube. The shock/interface interactions, the growth of perturbation at an interface between two fluids of different density are interrogated. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are discussed

Paper Detail
1183
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304
12137
Sliding-Mode Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor
Abstract:
This paper presents a controller design technique for Synchronous Reluctance Motor to improve its dynamic performance with fast response and high accuracy. The sliding mode control is the most attractive and suitable method to use for this purpose, since it is simple in design and for its insensitivity to parameter variations or external disturbances. When this method implemented it yields fast dynamic response without overshoot and a zero steady-state error. The current loop control with decentralized sliding mode is presented in this paper. The mathematical model for the synchronous machine, the inverter and the controller is developed. The stability of the sliding mode controller is analyzed. Simulation of synchronous reluctance motor and the controller with PWM-inverter has been curried out, using the SIMULINK software package of MATLAB. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach.
Paper Detail
2299
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303
8665
An Empirical Model to Calculate the Threads Stripping of a Bolt Installed in a Tapped Part
Abstract:

To determine the length of engagement threads of a bolt installed in a tapped part in order to avoid the threads stripping remains a very current problem in the design of the thread assemblies. It does not exist a calculation method formalized for the cases where the bolt is screwed directly in a ductile material. In this article, we study the behavior of the threads stripping of a loaded assembly by using a modelling by finite elements and a rupture criterion by damage. This modelling enables us to study the different parameters likely to influence the behavior of this bolted connection. We study in particular, the influence of couple of materials constituting the connection, of the bolt-s diameter and the geometrical characteristics of the tapped part, like the external diameter and the length of engagement threads. We established an experiments design to know the most significant parameters. That enables us to propose a simple expression making possible to calculate the resistance of the threads whatever the metallic materials of the bolt and the tapped part. We carried out stripping tests in order to validate our model. The estimated results are very close to those obtained by the tests.

Paper Detail
3540
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302
11535
Optimizing Turning Parameters for Cylindrical Parts Using Simulated Annealing Method
Abstract:

In this paper, a simulated annealing algorithm has been developed to optimize machining parameters in turning operation on cylindrical workpieces. The turning operation usually includes several passes of rough machining and a final pass of finishing. Seven different constraints are considered in a non-linear model where the goal is to achieve minimum total cost. The weighted total cost consists of machining cost, tool cost and tool replacement cost. The computational results clearly show that the proposed optimization procedure has considerably improved total operation cost by optimally determining machining parameters.

Paper Detail
929
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301
285
The Role of Periodic Vortex Shedding in Heat Transfer Enhancement for Transient Pulsatile Flow Inside Wavy Channels
Abstract:
Periodic vortex shedding in pulsating flow inside wavy channel and the effect it has on heat transfer are studied using the finite volume method. A sinusoidally-varying component is superimposed on a uniform flow inside a sinusoidal wavy channel and the effects on the Nusselt number is analyzed. It was found that a unique optimum value of the pulsation frequency, represented by the Strouhal number, exists for Reynolds numbers ranging from 125 to 1000. Results suggest that the gain in heat transfer is related to the process of vortex formation, movement about the troughs of the wavy channel, and subsequent ejection/destruction through the converging section. Heat transfer is the highest when the frequencies of the pulsation and vortex formation approach being in-phase. Analysis of Strouhal number effect on Nu over a period of pulsation substantiates the proposed physical mechanism for enhancement. The effect of changing the amplitude of pulsation is also presented over a period of pulsation, showing a monotonic increase in heat transfer with increasing amplitude. The 60% increase in Nusselt number suggests that sinusoidal fluid pulsation can an effective method for enhancing heat transfer in laminar, wavy-channel flows.
Paper Detail
1353
downloads
300
7105
An Experimental Method for Measuring Clamping Force in Bolted Connections and Effect of Bolt Threads Lubrication on Its Value
Abstract:

In this paper, the details of an experimental method to measure the clamping force value at bolted connections due to application of wrenching torque to tighten the nut have been presented. A simplified bolted joint including a holed plate with a single bolt was considered to carry out the experiments. This method was designed based on Hooke-s law by measuring compressive axial strain of a steel bush placed between the nut and the plate. In the experimental procedure, the values of clamping force were calculated for seven different levels of applied torque, and this process was repeated three times for each level of the torque. Moreover, the effect of lubrication of threads on the clamping value was studied using the same method. In both conditions (dry and lubricated threads), relation between the torque and the clamping force have been displayed in graphs.

Paper Detail
5782
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299
8844
Dynamic Modeling of Tow Flexible Link Manipulators
Abstract:
Modeling and vibration of a flexible link manipulator with tow flexible links and rigid joints are investigated which can include an arbitrary number of flexible links. Hamilton principle and finite element approach is proposed to model the dynamics of flexible manipulators. The links are assumed to be deflection due to bending. The association between elastic displacements of links is investigated, took into account the coupling effects of elastic motion and rigid motion. Flexible links are treated as Euler-Bernoulli beams and the shear deformation is thus abandoned. The dynamic behavior due to flexibility of links is well demonstrated through numerical simulation. The rigid-body motion and elastic deformations are separated by linearizing the equations of motion around the rigid body reference path. Simulation results are shown on for both position and force trajectory tracking tasks in the presence of varying parameters and unknown dynamics remarkably well. The proposed method can be used in both dynamic simulation and controller design.
Paper Detail
1715
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298
13198
Effects of Mach Number and Angle of Attack on Mass Flow Rates and Entropy Gain in a Supersonic Inlet
Abstract:
A parametric study of a mixed-compression supersonic inlet is performed and reported. The effects of inlet Mach Numbers, varying from 4 to 10, and angle of attack, varying from 0 to 10, are reported for a constant inlet dynamic pressure. The paper looked at the variations of mass flow rates through the inlet, gain in entropy through the inlet, and the angles of the external oblique shocks. The mass flow rates were found to decrease monotonically with Mach numbers and increase with angle of attacks. On the other hand the entropy gain through the inlet increased with increasing Mach number and angle of attack. The variation in static pressure was found to be identical from the inlet throat to the exit for Mach number values higher than 6.
Paper Detail
1847
downloads
297
7663
Heat Exchanger Design
Abstract:

This paper is intended to assist anyone with some general technical experience, but perhaps limited specific knowledge of heat transfer equipment. A characteristic of heat exchanger design is the procedure of specifying a design, heat transfer area and pressure drops and checking whether the assumed design satisfies all requirements or not. The purpose of this paper is how to design the oil cooler (heat exchanger) especially for shell-and-tube heat exchanger which is the majority type of liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger. General design considerations and design procedure are also illustrated in this paper and a flow diagram is provided as an aid of design procedure. In design calculation, the MatLAB and AutoCAD software are used. Fundamental heat transfer concepts and complex relationships involved in such exchanger are also presented in this paper. The primary aim of this design is to obtain a high heat transfer rate without exceeding the allowable pressure drop. This computer program is highly useful to design the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger and to modify existing deign.

Paper Detail
5644
downloads
296
2363
Fatigue Failure of Structural Steel – Analysis Using Fracture Mechanics
Abstract:
Fatigue is the major threat in service of steel structure subjected to fluctuating loads. With the additional effect of corrosion and presence of weld joints the fatigue failure may become more critical in structural steel. One of the apt examples of such structural is the sailing ship. This is experiencing a constant stress due to floating and a pulsating bending load due to the waves. This paper describes an attempt to verify theory of fatigue in fracture mechanics approach with experimentation to determine the constants of crack growth curve. For this, specimen is prepared from the ship building steel and it is subjected to a pulsating bending load with a known defect. Fatigue crack and its nature is observed in this experiment. Application of fracture mechanics approach in fatigue with a simple practical experiment is conducted and constants of crack growth equation are investigated.
Paper Detail
2509
downloads
295
4605
Control of Commutation of SR Motor Using Its Magnetic Characteristics and Back-of-Core Saturation Effects
Abstract:
The control of commutation of switched reluctance (SR) motor has nominally depended on a physical position detector. The physical rotor position sensor limits robustness and increases size and inertia of the SR drive system. The paper describes a method to overcome these limitations by using magnetization characteristics of the motor to indicate rotor and stator teeth overlap status. The method is using active current probing pulses of same magnitude that is used to simulate flux linkage in the winding being probed. A microprocessor is used for processing magnetization data to deduce rotor-stator teeth overlap status and hence rotor position. However, the back-of-core saturation and mutual coupling introduces overlap detection errors, hence that of commutation control. This paper presents the concept of the detection scheme and the effects of backof core saturation.
Paper Detail
779
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294
2321
Graphical Programming of Programmable Logic Controllers -Case Study for a Punching Machine-
Abstract:
The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) plays a vital role in automation and process control. Grafcet is used for representing the control logic, and traditional programming languages are used for describing the pure algorithms. Grafcet is used for dividing the process to be automated in elementary sequences that can be easily implemented. Each sequence represent a step that has associated actions programmed using textual or graphical languages after case. The programming task is simplified by using a set of subroutines that are used in several steps. The paper presents an example of implementation for a punching machine for sheets and plates. The use the graphical languages the programming of a complex sequential process is a necessary solution. The state of Grafcet can be used for debugging and malfunction determination. The use of the method combined with a set of knowledge acquisition for process application reduces the downtime of the machine and improve the productivity.
Paper Detail
1371
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293
4440
Design and Implementation of an Intelligent System for Detection of Hazardous Gases using PbPc Sensor Array
Abstract:
The voltage/current characteristics and the effect of NO2 gas on the electrical conductivity of a PbPc gas sensor array is investigated. The gas sensor is manufactured using vacuum deposition of gold electrodes on sapphire substrate with the leadphathalocyanine vacuum sublimed on the top of the gold electrodes. Two versions of the PbPc gas sensor array are investigated. The tested types differ in the gap sizes between the deposited gold electrodes. The sensors are tested at different temperatures to account for conductivity changes as the molecular adsorption/desorption rate is affected by heat. The obtained results found to be encouraging as the sensors shoed stability and sensitivity towards low concentration of applied NO2 gas.
Paper Detail
956
downloads
292
7449
Development of A Jacobean Model for A 4-Axes Indigenously Developed SCARA System
Abstract:

This paper deals with the development of a Jacobean model for a 4-axes indigenously developed scara robot arm in the laboratory. This model is used to study the relation between the velocities and the forces in the robot while it is doing the pick and place operation.

Paper Detail
2294
downloads
291
10005
Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing Mechanism
Abstract:
In this work a dynamic model of a new quadrotor aerial vehicle that is equipped with a tilt-wing mechanism is presented. The vehicle has the capabilities of vertical take-off/landing (VTOL) like a helicopter and flying horizontal like an airplane. Dynamic model of the vehicle is derived both for vertical and horizontal flight modes using Newton-Euler formulation. An LQR controller for the vertical flight mode has also been developed and its performance has been tested with several simulations.
Paper Detail
3168
downloads
290
9334
Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive Control for Vehicle Steering System
Abstract:
A variable structure model reference adaptive control (VS-MRAC) strategy for active steering assistance of a two wheel steering car is proposed. An ideal steering system with fixed properties and moving on an ideal road is used as the reference model, and the active steering assistance system is forced to attain the same behavior as the reference model. The proposed system can treat the nonlinear relationships between the side slip angles and lateral forces on tire, and the uncertainties on friction of the road surface, whose compensation are very important under critical situations. Simulation results show improvements on yaw rate and side slip.
Paper Detail
974
downloads
289
10912
Tipover Stability Enhancement of Wheeled Mobile Manipulators Using an Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference Controller System
Abstract:
In this paper an algorithm based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller is provided to enhance the tipover stability of mobile manipulators when they are subjected to predefined trajectories for the end-effector and the vehicle. The controller creates proper configurations for the manipulator to prevent the robot from being overturned. The optimal configuration and thus the most favorable control are obtained through soft computing approaches including a combination of genetic algorithm, neural networks, and fuzzy logic. The proposed algorithm, in this paper, is that a look-up table is designed by employing the obtained values from the genetic algorithm in order to minimize the performance index and by using this data base, rule bases are designed for the ANFIS controller and will be exerted on the actuators to enhance the tipover stability of the mobile manipulator. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Paper Detail
1384
downloads
288
579
Study on Damage Tolerance Behavior of Integrally Stiffened Panel and Conventional Stiffened Panel
Authors:
Abstract:
The damage tolerance behavior of integrally and conventional stiffened panel is investigated based on the fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. The load bearing capability and crack growth characteristic of both types of the stiffened panels having same configuration subjected to distributed tensile load is examined in this paper. A fourteen-stringer stiffened panel is analyzed for a central skin crack propagating towards the adjacent stringers. Stress intensity factors and fatigue crack propagation rates of both types of the stiffened panels are then compared. The analysis results show that integral stiffening causes higher stress intensity factor than conventional stiffened panel as the crack tip passes through the stringer and the integrally stiffened panel has less load bearing capability than the riveted stiffened panel.
Paper Detail
2177
downloads
287
12521
PID Parameter Optimization of an UAV Longitudinal Flight Control System
Abstract:
In this paper, an automatic control system design based on Integral Squared Error (ISE) parameter optimization technique has been implemented on longitudinal flight dynamics of an UAV. It has been aimed to minimize the error function between the reference signal and the output of the plant. In the following parts, objective function has been defined with respect to error dynamics. An unconstrained optimization problem has been solved analytically by using necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality, optimum PID parameters have been obtained and implemented in control system dynamics.
Paper Detail
2940
downloads
286
14406
Bearing Fault Feature Extraction by Recurrence Quantification Analysis
Abstract:
In rotating machinery one of the critical components that is prone to premature failure is the rolling bearing. Consequently, early warning of an imminent bearing failure is much critical to the safety and reliability of any high speed rotating machines. This study is concerned with the application of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) in fault detection of rolling element bearings in rotating machinery. Based on the results from this study it is reported that the RQA variable, percent determinism, is sensitive to the type of fault investigated and therefore can provide useful information on bearing damage in rolling element bearings.
Paper Detail
1164
downloads