International Science Index
International Journal of Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Travel Time Model for Cylinder Type Parking System
In this paper, we mainly analyze an automated parking system where the storage and retrieval requests are performed by a tower crane. In this parking system, the S/R crane which is located at the middle of the bottom of the cylinder parking area can rotate in both clockwise and counterclockwise and three kinds of movements can be done simultaneously. We develop some mathematical travel time models for the single command cycle under the random storage assignment using the characteristics of this system. Finally, we compare these travel models with discrete case and it is shown that these travel models display a good satisfactory performance.
Numerical Example of Aperiodic Diffraction Grating
Diffraction grating is periodic module used in many
engineering fields, its geometrical conception gives interesting
properties of diffraction and interferences, a uniform and periodic
diffraction grating consists of a number of identical apertures that are
equally spaced, in this case, the amplitude of intensity distribution
in the far field region is generally modulated by diffraction pattern
of single aperture. In this paper, we study the case of aperiodic
diffraction grating with identical rectangular apertures where theirs
coordinates are modeled by square root function, we elaborate a
computer simulation comparatively to the periodic array with same
length and we discuss the numerical results.
A Study of Numerical Reaction-Diffusion Systems on Closed Surfaces
The diffusion-reaction equations are important Partial Differential Equations in mathematical biology, material science, physics, and so on. However, finding efficient numerical methods for diffusion-reaction systems on curved surfaces is still an important and difficult problem. The purpose of this paper is to present a convergent geometric method for solving the reaction-diffusion equations on closed surfaces by an O(r)-LTL configuration method. The O(r)-LTL configuration method combining the local tangential lifting technique and configuration equations is an effective method to estimate differential quantities on curved surfaces. Since estimating the Laplace-Beltrami operator is an important task for solving the reaction-diffusion equations on surfaces, we use the local tangential lifting method and a generalized finite difference method to approximate the Laplace-Beltrami operators and we solve this reaction-diffusion system on closed surfaces. Our method is not only conceptually simple, but also easy to implement.
A Numerical Method for Diffusion and Cahn-Hilliard Equations on Evolving Spherical Surfaces
In this paper, we present a simple effective numerical geometric method to estimate the divergence of a vector field over a curved surface. The conservation law is an important principle in physics and mathematics. However, many well-known numerical methods for solving diffusion equations do not obey conservation laws. Our presented method in this paper combines the divergence theorem with a generalized finite difference method and obeys the conservation law on discrete closed surfaces. We use the similar method to solve the Cahn-Hilliard equations on evolving spherical surfaces and observe stability results in our numerical simulations.
Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides
This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.
Investigating the Efficiency of Stratified Double Median Ranked Set Sample for Estimating the Population Mean
Stratified double median ranked set sampling (SDMRSS) method is suggested for estimating the population mean. The SDMRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified simple random sampling (SSRS), and stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS). It is shown that SDMRSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than SRS, SSRS, and SRSS. Also, by SDMRSS, we can increase the efficiency of mean estimator for specific value of the sample size. SDMRSS is applied on real life examples, and the results of the example agreed the theoretical results.
Semilocal Convergence of a Three Step Fifth Order Iterative Method under Höolder Continuity Condition in Banach Spaces
In this paper, we study the semilocal convergence of
a fifth order iterative method using recurrence relation under the
assumption that first order Fréchet derivative satisfies the Hölder
condition. Also, we calculate the R-order of convergence and provide
some a priori error bounds. Based on this, we give existence and
uniqueness region of the solution for a nonlinear Hammerstein
integral equation of the second kind.
Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations
Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.
On the Optimality of Blocked Main Effects Plans
In this article, experimental situations are considered
where a main effects plan is to be used to study m two-level factors
using n runs which are partitioned into b blocks, not necessarily
of same size. Assuming the block sizes to be even for all blocks,
for the case n ≡ 2 (mod 4), optimal designs are obtained with
respect to type 1 and type 2 optimality criteria in the class of designs
providing estimation of all main effects orthogonal to the block
effects. In practice, such orthogonal estimation of main effects is
often a desirable condition. In the wider class of all available m two
level even sized blocked main effects plans, where the factors do not
occur at high and low levels equally often in each block, E-optimal
designs are also characterized. Simple construction methods based on
Hadamard matrices and Kronecker product for these optimal designs
Optimization of Loudspeaker Part Design Parameters by Air Viscosity Damping Effect
This study optimized the design parameters of a cone loudspeaker as an example of high flexibility of the product design. We developed an acoustic analysis software program that considers the impact of damping caused by air viscosity. In sound reproduction, it is difficult to optimize each parameter of the loudspeaker design. To overcome the limitation of the design problem in practice, this study presents an acoustic analysis algorithm to optimize the design parameters of the loudspeaker. The material character of cone paper and the loudspeaker edge were the design parameters, and the vibration displacement of the cone paper was the objective function. The results of the analysis showed that the design had high accuracy as compared to the predicted value. These results suggested that although the parameter design is difficult, with experience and intuition, the design can be performed easily using the optimized design found with the acoustic analysis software.
Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for the Symmetric Arrowhead Solution of Matrix Equation AXB=C
Based on the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm, the constrained matrix equation AXB=C and the associate optimal approximation problem are considered for the symmetric arrowhead matrix solutions in the premise of consistency. The convergence results of the method are presented. At last, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of this method.
Four Positive Almost Periodic Solutions to an Impulsive Delayed Plankton Allelopathy System with Multiple Exploit (or Harvesting) Terms
In this paper, we obtain sufficient conditions for the
existence of at least four positive almost periodic solutions to an
impulsive delayed periodic plankton allelopathy system with multiple
exploited (or harvesting) terms. This result is obtained through the
use of Mawhins continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory
along with some properties relating to inequalities.
On the Strong Solutions of the Nonlinear Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid
A nonlinear model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of an incompressible viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field is considered. The model is a generalization of the known Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density. An explicit algorithm for the solution is constructed, and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems for the strong solution of the nonlinear problem is given. For the linear case, the localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves are also investigated.
A Statistical Model for the Dynamics of Single Cathode Spot in Vacuum Cylindrical Cathode
Dynamics of cathode spot has become a major part
of vacuum arc discharge with its high academic interest and
wide application potential. In this article, using a three-dimensional
statistical model, we simulate the distribution of the ignition
probability of a new cathode spot occurring in different magnetic
pressure on old cathode spot surface and at different arcing time.
This model for the ignition probability of a new cathode spot was
proposed in two typical situations, one by the pure isotropic random
walk in the absence of an external magnetic field, other by the
retrograde motion in external magnetic field, in parallel with the
cathode surface. We mainly focus on developed relationship between
the ignition probability density distribution of a new cathode spot and
the external magnetic field.
A Comparative Study of High Order Rotated Group Iterative Schemes on Helmholtz Equation
In this paper, we present a high order group explicit method in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The presented method is derived from a nine-point fourth order finite difference approximation formula obtained from a 45-degree rotation of the standard grid which makes it possible for the construction of iterative procedure with reduced complexity. The developed method will be compared with the existing group iterative schemes available in literature in terms of computational time, iteration counts, and computational complexity. The comparative performances of the methods will be discussed and reported.
A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides
In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.
A Lagrangian Hamiltonian Computational Method for Hyper-Elastic Structural Dynamics
Performance of a Hamiltonian based particle method in simulation of nonlinear structural dynamics is subjected to investigation in terms of stability and accuracy. The governing equation of motion is derived based on Hamilton's principle of least action, while the deformation gradient is obtained according to Weighted Least Square method. The hyper-elasticity models of Saint Venant-Kirchhoff and a compressible version similar to Mooney- Rivlin are engaged for the calculation of second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, respectively. Stability along with accuracy of numerical model is verified by reproducing critical stress fields in static and dynamic responses. As the results, although performance of Hamiltonian based model is evaluated as being acceptable in dealing with intense extensional stress fields, however kinds of instabilities reveal in the case of violent collision which can be most likely attributed to zero energy singular modes.
Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities
Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic
constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although
probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems,
several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints.
In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic
constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines
a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic
constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.
Mathematical Reconstruction of an Object Image Using X-Ray Interferometric Fourier Holography Method
The main principles of X-ray Fourier interferometric holography method are discussed. The object image is reconstructed by the mathematical method of Fourier transformation. The three methods are presented – method of approximation, iteration method and step by step method. As an example the complex amplitude transmission coefficient reconstruction of a beryllium wire is considered. The results reconstructed by three presented methods are compared. The best results are obtained by means of step by step method.
Characterization of an Extrapolation Chamber for Dosimetry of Low Energy X-Ray Beams
Extrapolation chambers were designed to be used as primary standard dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose in a medium in beta radiation and low energy x-rays. The International Organization for Standardization established series of reference x-radiation for calibrating and determining the energy dependence of dosimeters that are to be reproduced in metrology laboratories. Standardization of the low energy x-ray beams with tube potential lower than 30 kV may be affected by the instrument used for dosimetry. In this work, parameters of a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber were determined aiming its use in low energy x-ray beams as a reference instrument.
Stability Analysis for an Extended Model of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis
We formulate and analyze a mathematical model
describing dynamics of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid
homoeostatic mechanism in endocrine system. We introduce
to this system two types of couplings and delay. In our model,
feedback controls the secretion of thyroid hormones and delay
reflects time lags required for transportation of the hormones. The
influence of delayed feedback on the stability behaviour of the
system is discussed. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical
examples of the model dynamics. This system of equations describes
normal activity of the thyroid and also a couple of types of
malfunctions (e.g. hyperthyroidism).
Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method
The goal of this project is to investigate constant
properties (called the Liouville-type Problem) for a p-stable map
as a local or global minimum of a p-energy functional where
the domain is a Euclidean space and the target space is a
closed half-ellipsoid. The First and Second Variation Formulas
for a p-energy functional has been applied in the Calculus
Variation Method as computation techniques. Stokes’ Theorem,
Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Hardy-Sobolev type Inequalities, and
the Bochner Formula as estimation techniques have been used to
estimate the lower bound and the upper bound of the derived
p-Harmonic Stability Inequality. One challenging point in this project
is to construct a family of variation maps such that the images
of variation maps must be guaranteed in a closed half-ellipsoid.
The other challenging point is to find a contradiction between the
lower bound and the upper bound in an analysis of p-Harmonic
Stability Inequality when a p-energy minimizing map is not constant.
Therefore, the possibility of a non-constant p-energy minimizing
map has been ruled out and the constant property for a p-energy
minimizing map has been obtained. Our research finding is to explore
the constant property for a p-stable map from a Euclidean space into
a closed half-ellipsoid in a certain range of p. The certain range of
p is determined by the dimension values of a Euclidean space (the
domain) and an ellipsoid (the target space). The certain range of p
is also bounded by the curvature values on an ellipsoid (that is, the
ratio of the longest axis to the shortest axis). Regarding Liouville-type
results for a p-stable map, our research finding on an ellipsoid is a
generalization of mathematicians’ results on a sphere. Our result is
also an extension of mathematicians’ Liouville-type results from a
special ellipsoid with only one parameter to any ellipsoid with (n+1)
parameters in the general setting.
Integral Methods in the Determination of Temperature Fields of Cooled Blades of Gas Turbines
A mathematical model and an effective numerical method for calculating the temperature field of the profile part of convection cooled blades have been developed. The theoretical substantiation of the method is proved by corresponding theorems. To this end, convergent quadrature processes were developed and error estimates were obtained in terms of the Zygmund continuity moduli.The boundary conditions for heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relations.The reliability of the developed methods is confirmed by the calculation-experimental studies of the thermohydraulic characteristics of the nozzle apparatus of the first stage of a gas turbine.
Solving Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming Problems with Fuzzy Decision Variables
In this paper, a method is proposed for solving Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming problems (FMOLPP) with fuzzy right hand side and fuzzy decision variables. To illustrate the proposed method, it is applied to the problem of selecting suppliers for an automotive parts producer company in Iran in order to find the number of optimal orders allocated to each supplier considering the conflicting objectives. Finally, the obtained results are discussed.
Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source
Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.
FEM Simulation of Triple Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamics Effect of Nanofluid Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet
The triple diffusive boundary layer flow of nanofluid under the action of constant magnetic field over a non-linear stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The model includes the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and cross-diffusion; slip mechanisms which are primarily responsible for the enhancement of the convective features of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (by using group theory transformations) and solved numerically by using variational finite element method. The effects of various controlling parameters, such as the magnetic influence number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, modified Dufour parameter, and Dufour solutal Lewis number, on the fluid flow as well as on heat and mass transfer coefficients (both of solute and nanofluid) are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. The present study has industrial applications in aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, coating and suspensions, melt spinning, hot rolling, wire drawing, glass-fibre production, and manufacture of polymer and rubber sheets, where the quality of the desired product depends on the stretching rate as well as external field including magnetic effects.
An Estimating Parameter of the Mean in Normal Distribution by Maximum Likelihood, Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods
This paper is to compare the parameter estimation of
the mean in normal distribution by Maximum Likelihood (ML),
Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The ML
estimator is estimated by the average of data, the Bayes method is
considered from the prior distribution to estimate Bayes estimator,
and MCMC estimator is approximated by Gibbs sampling from
posterior distribution. These methods are also to estimate a parameter
then the hypothesis testing is used to check a robustness of the
estimators. Data are simulated from normal distribution with the true
parameter of mean 2, and variance 4, 9, and 16 when the sample
sizes is set as 10, 20, 30, and 50. From the results, it can be seen
that the estimation of MLE, and MCMC are perceivably different
from the true parameter when the sample size is 10 and 20 with
variance 16. Furthermore, the Bayes estimator is estimated from the
prior distribution when mean is 1, and variance is 12 which showed
the significant difference in mean with variance 9 at the sample size
10 and 20.
On Quasi Conformally Flat LP-Sasakian Manifolds with a Coefficient α
The aim of the present paper is to study properties of
Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifolds with a coefficient α.
In this paper, we prove that a Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian
manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α is an η−Einstein
and in a quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3)
with a constant coefficient α if the scalar curvature tensor is constant
then M is of constant curvature.
Variogram Fitting Based on the Wilcoxon Norm
Within geostatistics research, effective estimation of
the variogram points has been examined, particularly in developing
robust alternatives. The parametric fit of these variogram points which
eventually defines the kriging weights, however, has not received
the same attention from a robust perspective. This paper proposes
the use of the non-linear Wilcoxon norm over weighted non-linear
least squares as a robust variogram fitting alternative. First, we
introduce the concept of variogram estimation and fitting. Then, as
an alternative to non-linear weighted least squares, we discuss the
non-linear Wilcoxon estimator. Next, the robustness properties of the
non-linear Wilcoxon are demonstrated using a contaminated spatial
data set. Finally, under simulated conditions, increasing levels of
contaminated spatial processes have their variograms points estimated
and fit. In the fitting of these variogram points, both non-linear
Weighted Least Squares and non-linear Wilcoxon fits are examined
for efficiency. At all levels of contamination (including 0%), using
a robust estimation and robust fitting procedure, the non-weighted
Wilcoxon outperforms weighted Least Squares.
(λ, μ)-Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subgroups of Groups with Operators
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of the (λ, μ)-intuitionistic fuzzy subgroups and (λ, μ)-intuitionistic fuzzy normal subgroups of groups with operators, and to investigate their properties and characterizations based on M-group homomorphism.