International Science Index
International Journal of Mathematical, Computational, Physical, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Contaminant Transport Modeling Due to Thermal Diffusion Effects with the Effect of Biodegradation
The heat and mass transfer characteristics of
contaminants in groundwater subjected to a biodegradation reaction
is analyzed by taking into account the thermal diffusion (Soret)
effects. This phenomenon is modulated mathematically by a
system of partial differential equations which govern the motion
of fluid (groundwater) and solid (contaminants) particles. The
numerical results are presented graphically for different values of
the parameters entering into the problem on the velocity profiles of
fluid, contaminants, temperature and concentration profile.
Describing the Fine Electronic Structure and Predicting Properties of Materials with ATOMIC MATTERS Computation System
We present the concept and scientific methods and algorithms of our computation system called ATOMIC MATTERS. This is the first presentation of the new computer package, that allows its user to describe physical properties of atomic localized electron systems subject to electromagnetic interactions. Our solution applies to situations where an unclosed electron 2p/3p/3d/4d/5d/4f/5f subshell interacts with an electrostatic potential of definable symmetry and external magnetic field. Our methods are based on Crystal Electric Field (CEF) approach, which takes into consideration the electrostatic ligands field as well as the magnetic Zeeman effect. The application allowed us to predict macroscopic properties of materials such as: Magnetic, spectral and calorimetric as a result of physical properties of their fine electronic structure. We emphasize the importance of symmetry of charge surroundings of atom/ion, spin-orbit interactions (spin-orbit coupling) and the use of complex number matrices in the definition of the Hamiltonian. Calculation methods, algorithms and convention recalculation tools collected in ATOMIC MATTERS were chosen to permit the prediction of magnetic and spectral properties of materials in isostructural series.
A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function
Stochastic modeling concerns the use of probability
to model real-world situations in which uncertainty is present.
Therefore, the purpose of stochastic modeling is to estimate the
probability of outcomes within a forecast, i.e. to be able to predict
what conditions or decisions might happen under different situations.
In the present study, we present a model of a stochastic diffusion
process based on the bi-Weibull distribution function (its trend
is proportional to the bi-Weibull probability density function). In
general, the Weibull distribution has the ability to assume the
characteristics of many different types of distributions. This has
made it very popular among engineers and quality practitioners, who
have considered it the most commonly used distribution for studying
problems such as modeling reliability data, accelerated life testing,
and maintainability modeling and analysis. In this work, we start
by obtaining the probabilistic characteristics of this model, as the
explicit expression of the process, its trends, and its distribution by
transforming the diffusion process in a Wiener process as shown in
the Ricciaardi theorem. Then, we develop the statistical inference of
this model using the maximum likelihood methodology. Finally, we
analyse with simulated data the computational problems associated
with the parameters, an issue of great importance in its application to
real data with the use of the convergence analysis methods. Overall,
the use of a stochastic model reflects only a pragmatic decision on
the part of the modeler. According to the data that is available and
the universe of models known to the modeler, this model represents
the best currently available description of the phenomenon under
A Qualitative Description of the Dynamics in the Interactions between Three Populations: Pollinators, Plants, and Herbivores
In population dynamics the study of both, the
abundance and the spatial distribution of the populations in a
given habitat, is a fundamental issue a From ecological point of
view, the determination of the factors influencing such changes
involves important problems. In this paper a mathematical model to
describe the temporal dynamic and the spatiotemporal dynamic of the
interaction of three populations (pollinators, plants and herbivores) is
presented. The study we present is carried out by stages: 1. The
temporal dynamics and 2. The spatio-temporal dynamics. In turn,
each of these stages is developed by considering three cases which
correspond to the dynamics of each type of interaction. For instance,
for stage 1, we consider three ODE nonlinear systems describing
the pollinator-plant, plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator-herbivore,
interactions, respectively. In each of these systems different types of
dynamical behaviors are reported. Namely, transcritical and pitchfork
bifurcations, existence of a limit cycle, existence of a heteroclinic
orbit, etc. For the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two mathematical
models a novel factor are introduced. This consists in considering
that both, the pollinators and the herbivores, move towards those
places of the habitat where the plant population density is high.
In mathematical terms, this means that the diffusive part of the
pollinators and herbivores equations depend on the plant population
density. The analysis of this part is presented by considering pairs of
populations, i. e., the pollinator-plant and plant-herbivore interactions
and at the end the two mathematical model is presented, these models
consist of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of
reaction-diffusion type. These are defined on a rectangular domain
with the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. We focused
in the role played by the density dependent diffusion term into
the coexistence of the populations. For both, the temporal and
spatio-temporal dynamics, a several of numerical simulations are
Spatially Random Sampling for Retail Food Risk Factors Study
In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected data from selected fast food restaurants and full service restaurants for tracking changes in the occurrence of foodborne illness risk factors. This paper discussed how we customized spatial random sampling method by considering financial position and availability of FDA resources, and how we enriched restaurants data with location. Location information of restaurants provides opportunity for quantitatively determining random sampling within non-government units (e.g.: 240 kilometers around each data-collector). Spatial analysis also could optimize data-collectors’ work plans and resource allocation. Spatial analytic and processing platform helped us handling the spatial random sampling challenges. Our method fits in FDA’s ability to pinpoint features of foodservice establishments, and reduced both time and expense on data collection.
L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums
The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier
series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question
in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm.
In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the
L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special
coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums
and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained.
Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of
the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.
Electricity Generation from Renewables and Targets: An Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques
Renewable energy is referred to as "clean energy" and common popular support for the use of renewable energy (RE) is to provide electricity with zero carbon dioxide emissions. This study provides useful insight into the European Union (EU) RE, especially, into electricity generation obtained from renewables, and their targets. The objective of this study is to identify groups of European countries, using multivariate statistical analysis and selected indicators. The hierarchical clustering method is used to decide the number of clusters for EU countries. The conducted statistical hierarchical cluster analysis is based on the Ward’s clustering method and squared Euclidean distances. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified eight distinct clusters of European countries. Then, non-hierarchical clustering (k-means) method was applied. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the validity of the results with data normalized by Z score transformation. To explore the relationship between the selected indicators, correlation coefficients were computed. The results of the study reveal the current situation of RE in European Union Member States.
Regionalization of IDF Curves with L-Moments for Storm Events
The construction of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves is one of the most common and useful tools in order to design hydraulic structures and to provide a mathematical relationship between rainfall characteristics. IDF curves, especially those in Peninsular Malaysia, are often built using moving windows of rainfalls. However, these windows do not represent the actual rainfall events since the duration of rainfalls is usually prefixed. Hence, instead of using moving windows, this study aims to find regionalized distributions for IDF curves of extreme rainfalls based on storm events. Homogeneity test is performed on annual maximum of storm intensities to identify homogeneous regions of storms in Peninsular Malaysia. The L-moment method is then used to regionalized Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution of these annual maximums and subsequently. IDF curves are constructed using the regional distributions. The differences between the IDF curves obtained and IDF curves found using at-site GEV distributions are observed through the computation of the coefficient of variation of root mean square error, mean percentage difference and the coefficient of determination. The small differences implied that the construction of IDF curves could be simplified by finding a general probability distribution of each region. This will also help in constructing IDF curves for sites with no rainfall station.
Daily Probability Model of Storm Events in Peninsular Malaysia
Storm Event Analysis (SEA) provides a method to define rainfalls events as storms where each storm has its own amount and duration. By modelling daily probability of different types of storms, the onset, offset and cycle of rainfall seasons can be determined and investigated. Furthermore, researchers from the field of meteorology will be able to study the dynamical characteristics of rainfalls and make predictions for future reference. In this study, four categories of storms; short, intermediate, long and very long storms; are introduced based on the length of storm duration. Daily probability models of storms are built for these four categories of storms in Peninsular Malaysia. The models are constructed by using Bernoulli distribution and by applying linear regression on the first Fourier harmonic equation. From the models obtained, it is found that daily probability of storms at the Eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia shows a unimodal pattern with high probability of rain beginning at the end of the year and lasting until early the next year. This is very likely due to the Northeast monsoon season which occurs from November to March every year. Meanwhile, short and intermediate storms at other regions of Peninsular Malaysia experience a bimodal cycle due to the two inter-monsoon seasons. Overall, these models indicate that Peninsular Malaysia can be divided into four distinct regions based on the daily pattern for the probability of various storm events.
Segmentation of Piecewise Polynomial Regression Model by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm
Piecewise polynomial regression model is very flexible model for modeling the data. If the piecewise polynomial regression model is matched against the data, its parameters are not generally known. This paper studies the parameter estimation problem of piecewise polynomial regression model. The method which is used to estimate the parameters of the piecewise polynomial regression model is Bayesian method. Unfortunately, the Bayes estimator cannot be found analytically. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm generates the Markov chain that converges to the limit distribution of the posterior distribution of piecewise polynomial regression model parameter. The resulting Markov chain is used to calculate the Bayes estimator for the parameters of piecewise polynomial regression model.
A Survey on the Requirements of University Course Timetabling
Course timetabling problems occur every semester in a university which includes the allocation of resources (subjects, lecturers and students) to a number of fixed rooms and timeslots. The assignment is carried out in a way such that there are no conflicts within rooms, students and lecturers, as well as fulfilling a range of constraints. The constraints consist of rules and policies set up by the universities as well as lecturers’ and students’ preferences of courses to be allocated in specific timeslots. This paper specifically focuses on the preferences of the course timetabling problem in one of the public universities in Malaysia. The demands will be considered into our existing mathematical model to make it more generalized and can be used widely. We have distributed questionnaires to a number of lecturers and students of the university to investigate their demands and preferences for their desired course timetable. We classify the preferences thus converting them to construct one mathematical model that can produce such timetable.
Lyapunov Type Inequalities for Fractional Impulsive Hamiltonian Systems
This paper deals with study about fractional
order impulsive Hamiltonian systems and fractional impulsive
Sturm-Liouville type problems derived from these systems. The
main purpose of this paper devotes to obtain so called Lyapunov
type inequalities for mentioned problems. Also, in view point on
applicability of obtained inequalities, some qualitative properties such
as stability, disconjugacy, nonexistence and oscillatory behaviour of
fractional Hamiltonian systems and fractional Sturm-Liouville type
problems under impulsive conditions will be derived. At the end,
we want to point out that for studying fractional order Hamiltonian
systems, we will apply recently introduced fractional Conformable
Alternative Computational Arrangements on g-Group (g > 2) Profile Analysis
Alternative and simple computational arrangements in carrying out multivariate profile analysis when more than two groups (populations) are involved are presented. These arrangements have been demonstrated to not only yield equivalent results for the test statistics (the Wilks lambdas), but they have less computational efforts relative to other arrangements so far presented in the literature; in addition to being quite simple and easy to apply.
Speaker Identification by Atomic Decomposition of Learned Features Using Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Principals in Noisy Environments
Speaker recognition is performed in high Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) environments using principals of Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA). CASA methods often classify sounds from images in the time-frequency (T-F) plane using spectrograms or cochleargrams as the image. In this paper atomic decomposition implemented by matching pursuit performs a transform from time series speech signals to the T-F plane. The atomic decomposition creates a sparsely populated T-F vector in “weight space” where each populated T-F position contains an amplitude weight. The weight space vector along with the atomic dictionary represents a denoised, compressed version of the original signal. The arraignment or of the atomic indices in the T-F vector are used for classification. Unsupervised feature learning implemented by a sparse autoencoder learns a single dictionary of basis features from a collection of envelope samples from all speakers. The approach is demonstrated using pairs of speakers from the TIMIT data set. Pairs of speakers are selected randomly from a single district. Each speak has 10 sentences. Two are used for training and 8 for testing. Atomic index probabilities are created for each training sentence and also for each test sentence. Classification is performed by finding the lowest Euclidean distance between then probabilities from the training sentences and the test sentences. Training is done at a 30dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Testing is performed at SNR’s of 0 dB, 5 dB, 10 dB and 30dB. The algorithm has a baseline classification accuracy of ~93% averaged over 10 pairs of speakers from the TIMIT data set. The baseline accuracy is attributable to short sequences of training and test data as well as the overall simplicity of the classification algorithm. The accuracy is not affected by AWGN and produces ~93% accuracy at 0dB SNR.
A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model
In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.
Timetabling Communities’ Demands for an Effective Examination Timetabling Using Integer Linear Programming
This paper explains the educational timetabling problem, a type of scheduling problem that is considered as one of the most challenging problem in optimization and operational research. The university examination timetabling problem (UETP), which involves assigning a set number of exams into a set number of timeslots whilst fulfilling all required conditions, has been widely investigated. The limitation of available timeslots and resources with the increasing number of examinations are the main reasons in the difficulty of solving this problem. Dynamical change in the examination scheduling system adds up the complication particularly in coping up with the demand and new requirements by the communities. Our objective is to investigate these demands and requirements with subjects taken from Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), through questionnaires. Integer linear programming model which reflects the preferences obtained to produce an effective examination timetabling was formed.
Performance Comparison of ADTree and Naive Bayes Algorithms for Spam Filtering
Classification is an important data mining technique
and could be used as data filtering in artificial intelligence. The
broad application of classification for all kind of data leads to be
used in nearly every field of our modern life. Classification helps us
to put together different items according to the feature items decided
as interesting and useful. In this paper, we compare two
classification methods Naïve Bayes and ADTree use to detect spam
e-mail. This choice is motivated by the fact that Naive Bayes
algorithm is based on probability calculus while ADTree algorithm is
based on decision tree. The parameter settings of the above
classifiers use the maximization of true positive rate and
minimization of false positive rate. The experiment results present
classification accuracy and cost analysis in view of optimal classifier
choice for Spam Detection. It is point out the number of attributes to
obtain a tradeoff between number of them and the classification
Non-Coplanar Nuclei in Heavy-Ion Reactions
In recent times, we noticed an interesting and important
role of non-coplanar degree-of-freedom (Φ = 00) in heavy ion
reactions. Using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with
Φ degree-of-freedom included, we have studied three compound
systems 246Bk∗, 164Yb∗ and 105Ag∗. Here, within the DCM with
pocket formula for nuclear proximity potential, we look for the
effects of including compact, non-coplanar configurations (Φc = 00)
on the non-compound nucleus (nCN) contribution in total fusion
cross section σfus. For 246Bk∗, formed in 11B+235U and 14N+232Th
reaction channels, the DCM with coplanar nuclei (Φc = 00) shows
an nCN contribution for 11B+235U channel, but none for 14N+232Th
channel, which on including Φ gives both reaction channels as
pure compound nucleus decays. In the case of 164Yb∗, formed in
64Ni+100Mo, the small nCN effects for Φ=00 are reduced to almost
zero for Φ = 00. Interestingly, however, 105Ag∗ for Φ = 00 shows a
small nCN contribution, which gets strongly enhanced for Φ = 00,
such that the characteristic property of PCN presents a change of
behaviour, like that of a strongly fissioning superheavy element to a
weakly fissioning nucleus; note that 105Ag∗ is a weakly fissioning
nucleus and Psurv behaves like one for a weakly fissioning nucleus
for both Φ = 00 and Φ = 00. Apparently, Φ is presenting itself like
a good degree-of-freedom in the DCM.
On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients
In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of
generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral
transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain
spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier
type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with
respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an
inverse problem are also discussed in some details.
Adopting Flocks of Birds Approach to Predator for Anomalies Detection on Industrial Control Systems
Industrial Control Systems (ICS) such as Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) can be seen in many different critical infrastructures, from nuclear management to utility, medical equipment, power, waste and engine management on ships and planes. The role SCADA plays in critical infrastructure has resulted in a call to secure them. Many lives depend on it for daily activities and the attack vectors are becoming more sophisticated. Hence, the security of ICS is vital as malfunction of it might result in huge risk. This paper describes how the application of Prey Predator (PP) approach in flocks of birds could enhance the detection of malicious activities on ICS. The PP approach explains how these animals in groups or flocks detect predators by following some simple rules. They are not necessarily very intelligent animals but their approach in solving complex issues such as detection through corporation, coordination and communication worth emulating. This paper will emulate flocking behavior seen in birds in detecting predators. The PP approach will adopt six nearest bird approach in detecting any predator. Their local and global bests are based on the individual detection as well as group detection. The PP algorithm was designed following MapReduce methodology that follows a Split Detection Convergence (SDC) approach.
Coding Considerations for Standalone Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Atomistic Structures
The laws of Newtonian mechanics allow ab-initio
molecular dynamics to model and simulate particle trajectories in
material science by defining a differentiable potential function. This
paper discusses some considerations for the coding of ab-initio
programs for simulation on a standalone computer and illustrates
the approach by C language codes in the context of embedded
metallic atoms in the face-centred cubic structure. The algorithms use
velocity-time integration to determine particle parameter evolution
for up to several thousands of particles in a thermodynamical
ensemble. Such functions are reusable and can be placed in a
redistributable header library file. While there are both commercial
and free packages available, their heuristic nature prevents dissection.
In addition, developing own codes has the obvious advantage of
teaching techniques applicable to new problems.
Construction and Analysis of Samurai Sudoku
Samurai Sudoku consists of five Sudoku square designs each having nine treatments in each row (column or sub-block) only once such the five Sudoku designs overlaps. Two or more Samurai designs can be joint together to give an extended Samurai design. In addition, two Samurai designs, each containing five Sudoku square designs, are mutually orthogonal (Graeco). If we superimpose two Samurai designs and obtained a pair of Latin and Greek letters in each row (column or sub-block) of the five Sudoku designs only once, then we have Graeco Samurai design. In this paper, simple method of constructing Samurai designs and mutually orthogonal Samurai design are proposed. In addition, linear models and methods of data analysis for the designs are proposed.
Estimation of the Road Traffic Emissions and Dispersion in the Developing Countries Conditions
We present in this work our model of road traffic
emissions (line sources) and dispersion of these emissions, named
DISPOLSPEM (Dispersion of Poly Sources and Pollutants Emission
Model). In its emission part, this model was designed to keep the
consistent bottom-up and top-down approaches. It also allows to
generate emission inventories from reduced input parameters being
adapted to existing conditions in Morocco and in the other developing
countries. While several simplifications are made, all the performance
of the model results are kept. A further important advantage of
the model is that it allows the uncertainty calculation and emission
rate uncertainty according to each of the input parameters. In the
dispersion part of the model, an improved line source model has
been developed, implemented and tested against a reference solution.
It provides improvement in accuracy over previous formulas of line
source Gaussian plume model, without being too demanding in terms
of computational resources. In the case study presented here, the
biggest errors were associated with the ends of line source sections;
these errors will be canceled by adjacent sections of line sources
during the simulation of a road network. In cases where the wind
is parallel to the source line, the use of the combination discretized
source and analytical line source formulas minimizes remarkably the
error. Because this combination is applied only for a small number
of wind directions, it should not excessively increase the calculation
An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm
This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.
Multi-Objective Random Drift Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on RDPSO and Crowding Distance Sorting
In this paper, we presented a Multi-Objective Random
Drift Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MORDPSO-CD) based
on RDPSO and crowding distance sorting to improve the convergence
and distribution with less computation cost. MORDPSO-CD makes
the most of RDPSO to approach the true Pareto optimal solutions
fast. We adopt the crowding distance sorting technique to update and
maintain the archived optimal solutions. Introducing the crowding
distance technique into MORDPSO can make the leader particles
find the true Pareto solution ultimately. The simulation results reveal
that the proposed algorithm has better convergence and distribution.
Combined Analysis of Sudoku Square Designs with Same Treatments
Several experiments are conducted at different environments such as locations or periods (seasons) with identical treatments to each experiment purposely to study the interaction between the treatments and environments or between the treatments and periods (seasons). The commonly used designs of experiments for this purpose are randomized block design, Latin square design, balanced incomplete block design, Youden design, and one or more factor designs. The interest is to carry out a combined analysis of the data from these multi-environment experiments, instead of analyzing each experiment separately. This paper proposed combined analysis of experiments conducted via Sudoku square design of odd order with same experimental treatments.
Unconventional Calculus Spreadsheet Functions
The spreadsheet engine is exploited via a non-conventional mechanism to enable novel worksheet solver functions for computational calculus. The solver functions bypass inherent restrictions on built-in math and user defined functions by taking variable formulas as a new type of argument while retaining purity and recursion properties. The enabling mechanism permits integration of numerical algorithms into worksheet functions for solving virtually any computational problem that can be modelled by formulas and variables. Several examples are presented for computing integrals, derivatives, and systems of deferential-algebraic equations. Incorporation of the worksheet solver functions with the ubiquitous spreadsheet extend the utility of the latter as a powerful tool for computational mathematics.
Hamiltonian Related Properties with and without Faults of the Dual-Cube Interconnection Network and Their Variations
In this paper, a thorough review about dual-cubes, DCn,
the related studies and their variations are given. DCn was introduced
to be a network which retains the pleasing properties of hypercube Qn
but has a much smaller diameter. In fact, it is so constructed that the
number of vertices of DCn is equal to the number of vertices of Q2n
+1. However, each vertex in DCn is adjacent to n + 1 neighbors and
so DCn has (n + 1) × 2^2n edges in total, which is roughly half the
number of edges of Q2n+1. In addition, the diameter of any DCn is 2n
+2, which is of the same order of that of Q2n+1. For selfcompleteness,
basic definitions, construction rules and symbols are
provided. We chronicle the results, where eleven significant theorems
are presented, and include some open problems at the end.
Optimization Model for Identification of Assembly Alternatives of Large-Scale, Make-to-Order Products
Assembling large-scale products, such as airplanes, locomotives, or wind turbines, involves frequent process interruptions induced by e.g. delayed material deliveries or missing availability of resources. This leads to a negative impact on the logistical performance of a producer of xxl-products. In industrial practice, in case of interruptions, the identification, evaluation and eventually the selection of an alternative order of assembly activities (‘assembly alternative’) leads to an enormous challenge, especially if an optimized logistical decision should be reached. Therefore, in this paper, an innovative, optimization model for the identification of assembly alternatives that addresses the given problem is presented. It describes make-to-order, large-scale product assembly processes as a resource constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problem which follows given restrictions in practice. For the evaluation of the assembly alternative, a cost-based definition of the logistical objectives (delivery reliability, inventory, make-span and workload) is presented.
Influence of an External Magnetic Field on the Acoustomagnetoelectric Field in a Rectangular Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential by Using a Quantum Kinetic Equation
The acoustomagnetoelectric (AME) field in a rectangular quantum wire with an infinite potential (RQWIP) is calculated in the presence of an external magnetic field (EMF) by using the quantum kinetic equation for the distribution function of electrons system interacting with external phonons and electrons scattering with internal acoustic phonon in a RQWIP. We obtained ananalytic expression for the AME field in the RQWIP in the presence of the EMF. The dependence of AME field on the frequency of external acoustic wave, the temperature T of system, the cyclotron frequency of the EMF and the intensity of the EMF is obtained. Theoretical results for the AME field are numerically evaluated, plotted and discussed for a specific RQWIP GaAs/GaAsAl. This result has shown that the dependence of the AME field on intensity of the EMF is nonlinearly and it is many distinct maxima in the quantized magnetic region. We also compared received fields with those for normal bulk semiconductors, quantum well and quantum wire to show the difference. The influence of an EMF on AME field in a RQWIP is newly developed.